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Full text of "Sloan's constructive architecture : a guide to the practical builder and mechanic"

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in 2010 with funding from 

The Institute of Museum and Library Services through an Indiana State Library LSTA Grant 



http://www.archive.org/details/sloansconstructiOOinsloa 



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SLOAN'S 

CONSTRUCTIVE ARCHITECTURE; 

A 

GUIDE TO THE PRACTICAL BUILDER AND MECHANIC. 

IN WHICH IS CONTAINED 

A SERIES OF DESIGNS FOR DOMES, ROOFS AND SPIRES, 

WITH 

A NUMBER OP PLATES SHOWING THE INTERIOR CONSTRUCTION AND FINISH OP BAYS, WINDOW 
SHUTTERS, SLIDING DOORS, ETC., DESIGNED EXPRESSLY POR THE JOINER'S USE; 

CHOICE EXAMPLES OF 

THE FIVE ORDERS OF ARCHITECTURE, 

SELECTED FROM THE MOST CELEBRATED SPECIMENS OF ANTIQUITY, WITH THE FIGURED DIMENSIONS OF 
THEIR HEIGHT, PROJECTION AND PROFILE, AND THEIR DIVISION INTO PARTS. 

TO WHICH IS ADDED 

A NUMBER OF USEFUL GEOMETRICAL PROBLEMS, 

EXAMPLES OF GROINS, CENTERING FOR ARCHES, DIAGRAMS OF STAIR LINES, WITH ARCHITRAVES, DOOR MOULDINGS, ETC. 

THE WHOLE BEING 

lllustriitcb hj ^hU)-sb Curtfiilfir |!rcprciJ |1hitcs, 

ACCOMPANIED BY EXPLANATORY TEXT AND GENERAL ESSAYS, TO WHICH IS APPENDED A COPIOUS GLOSSARY. 



BY 

SAMUEL SLOAN, ARCHITECT, 

AUTHOR OF THE "MODEL ARCHITECT," "CITY AND SUBURBAN ARCHITECTURE," ETC. 



PHILADELPHIA: 

J. B. LIPPINCOTT & CO. 

is.-.i). 



EntcreJ, according to Act of Congress, iu the year 1859, by 
SAMUEL SLOAN, 
l.e rU-rk's Onicc of the District Court of the United States for tlic Eastern Distr 



PREFACE, 



The idea of publishing a practical work on Constructive Architecture suggested itself to the 
author while engaged in the preparation of the material for a large volume of architectural designs. The 
suggestion was natural. It might well be supposed that, while works on every other branch of science 
were teeming from the press, a volume specially designed to meet the wants of the practical builder or 
mechanic would prove no less seasonable than useful. 

Few works of this character have hitherto been published in this country — and still fewer are pos- 
sessed of any considerable degree of merit. We have been generally accustomed to consider foreign publi- 
cations as our standards; and these, though possessing many things valuable in themselves, are yet not 
well adapted — as they were not designed — to elucidate methods of practice which are, to a considerable 
extent, local and peculiar. In fact, owing to the spirit of improvement and invention which has of late 
characterized this branch of mechanics among us, many even of the terms in general acceptance a few 
short years ago have become obsolete, while numerous little methods and appliances are in every-day use, 
of which no mention can be found in the most recent of European authorities. 

It will be seen that, in the classification of our subjects, we have aimed at preserving some degree of 
systematic arrangement. Commencing with domes, we have presented in natural succession numerous 
examples of forms generally esteemed the most useful in Constructive Carpentry. These are original and 
eminently practical. There has been no straining after effect. Everything presented has been selected 
and illustrated solely on account of its practicability and intrinsic usefulness. Our numerous roof examples 
are of simple yet reliable construction and tested capability. The examples in Joinery, which succeed, 
contain and are suggestive of many new ideas. And to the illustration of those beautiful and unique 
creations of the ancients — the Five Orders — on which all that pertains to the builder's art is founded, we 
have devoted much more space than is usually given in works of similar character and pretension. Fully 
impressed with the importance of this subject to all connected with or engaged in the art of building, we 
have chosen our examples from the most celebrated and beautiful specimens of antiquity, and presented 
them, we trust, in a style of art commensurate with the interest they possess, and the intrinsic beauty of 
their several proportions. 

Nor has the consideration of the more important parts of geometrical construction, as applied to 
building, been neglected. While we have omitted many of the comparatively useless problems with which 
works of this description usually abound, we have yet been careful to present such examples as were in 
themselves important and really serviceable. We may instance, among these, the plates of groins and 
centering, and the carefully prepared diagrams of stair-lines, which will be found extremely valuable. Our 
work concludes with some choice examples of architraves, moulded panelings for doors, etc., specially 



4 I' 11 E F A (' E. 

designed and n(iiii)ted for the J(jii)er'.s use. Of the whole of our examples, it may lie remarked, that 
they are not only practiral in themselves, but highly suggestive of ideas — as to new forms and eomljina- 
tions — to the artisan who peruses them with careful study. 

In the arrangement of the text, we have, in every instance, for the convenience of the reader, placed 
the plate opposite the appropriate description, thus obviating an annoyance often experienced in illus- 
trated pul)lications, when the example is separated from its relevant matter. To such general information 
as we deemed would prove interesting, in connection with the several subjects of which we treated, and 
be likely still further to illustrate them, we have uniformly devoted a certain portion of our space. Thus 
interspersed with the descriptions — and yet in such a manner as to render it distinct in its own particular 
arrangement — will be found much valualjle matter, culled from the works of the most eminent masters, in 
addition to the information bearing directly upon the subject-matter, which the experience gathered in the 
course of a long and extensive professional practice has supplied. 

Our work would lie incomplete without a Glossary — that which is appended will l)e found useful and 
compendious. 

We have long been aware of the urgent necessity w-hich existed for a work of this character ; 
and our aim in the present volume has been to place witliin the rcacli of every mechanic the more 
advanced principles of his art. These principles are illustrated by practical examples. At the same 
time, a careful study of the details of classic design, as exhibited in the Orders, will teach him by com- 
parison to form a correct idea of the general proportions necessary to be observed in any proposed 
work, while an attentive perusal of the different geometrical and isometrical drawings will enable him to 
comprehend the best method of applying material in the more difficult parts of mechanical construction. 

The illustrations may be safely left to speak their own merits : one word in regard to them and we 
have done. They have been prepared at considerable expense, and in a manner calculated to afford 
satisfaction, and are referred to with some little degree of pride and pleasure, as evidencing the rapid 
progress which our country is making in this important and beautiful department of the fine arts. 



CONTENTS. 



Preface 

List of Illustrations 



Historical Notice 
Descriptive of Plates 



General Essay on Roofs 
Descriptive of Plates 
Essay on Spires 
Descriptive of Plates 



ROOF AND SPIRE CONSTRUCTION. 



General Essay . 
Descriptive of Plates 



CARPENTRY AND JOINERY. 



THE FIVE ORDERS, {First Series.) 



Introductory 

Grecian Doric, Descriptive 
Ionic, Remarks 

Descriptive 
Roman Doric, Remarks 

Descriptive 
The Orders in General 
Modern Doric, Descriptive 
Roman Ionic, Remarks 
■' " Descriptive . 

Corinthian, Remarks . 
" Descriptive 



THE ORDERS IN PARTS, (Second Series.) 
Tuscan Order, Principal Parts ...... 

'■ " Pedestal and Base, Descriptive ..... 

General Remarks ...... 

•' ■' Entablature and Capital, Descriptive .... 



Dnric Order, Principal Parts 

Pedestal and Base, Descriptive . 
•' General llcmarks 

Kutablature aud Capital, Dcscripti 
Ionic Order, Principal Parts . 

Pedestal and Uaso, Descriptive 
General llenmrks 
Entablature, Descriptive 
Corinthian Order. Principal Parts 

Pedestal and Base, Descriptive 
'• '• General Remarks 

Entablature, Descriptive 
Composite Order, Principal Parts 

Pedestal and Base, Descriptive 
" General Remarks . 
Entablature, Descriptive 
General Essay on the Orders . 

Details of Caps, Bases, Architraves, etc.. to the Orde 
Classic Doors and "Windows, Descriptive 
Mouldings, etc., General Essay 

Descriptive .... 
Definitions ..... 
(ilossary ..... 

Geometrical Problems 



rs, Dcscripl 



Tracery, Descripti' 

Arches, 

(iroin.s. 



PRACTICAL C ARPEN TRY. 



Geometrical Stair-lines, Descriptive 
Moulded Architraves, 

Panelings, 
Geometrical Definitions 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



DOME. 

PLATE PACE 

I. — Perspective ........... 12 

II. — Plan and Section .......... 14 

lU. — Transverse Section .......... 16 

IV. — Plan showing Principal Construction ....... 18 

ROOFS. 

V. — Example of Tie-beam Roof (large span) ....... 22 

VI.— Example of Open Timber Roof (Gothic) ....... 24 

VII.— Example of Hip Roof 2G 

VIII. — Isometrical Perspective ......... 28 

IS.— Example of Framing for a Hip Roof ........ 30 

X. — Isometrical Perspective ......... 32 

XI.— Example of Collar-beam Roof ......... 34 

Xn. — Isometrical Perspective ......... 30 

XIII— XV.— Examples of Collar-beam Roofs ......... 38 

XVI. — Examples of Tie-beam Roofs (two designs) ...... 44 

XVII.— Examples of Open Timber Roof (Gothic) ....... 40 

XVIII. — Examples of Bang-post and Tie-beam Roof ...... 48 

XIX. — Examples of Queen-posts and Tie-beam Roof ....... 50 

XX. — Examples of Truss-beams ......... 52 

XXI. — Examples of Spire .......... 54 



CARPENTRY AND JOINERY. 

XXII.^Designs for Framing, Bridging, and Trussing Joists ..... 50 

XXIII.— Designs for Bay Window ......... 58 

XXIV.— Designs for Twin Window ......... 60 

XXV.— Designs for Sliding Window Shutters ........ 62 

XXVI.— Designs for Sliding Doors ......... 64 

XXVII.— Designs for Folding Doors 66 

XXVIII.— Designs for Single Doors ......... 68 

XXIX. — Designs for Interior Doors ......... 70 

a) 



1 L L L U S T R A T I O X S. 



FIVE ORDKRS, (First .Series.) 



XXX. — Grecian Doric . 
XXXI. — Greciau Ionic 
XXXII. — Roman Doric , 
XXXIII.— Modern Doric 
XXXIV. — Roman Ionic . 
XXXV. — Roman Curintliian 



THE ORDERS IN FARTS, (Seco.vd Series.) 
XXXVI.-VIL— Tuscan Order .... 
XXXVIII.-IX.— Doric Order .... 

XL.-XLL— Ionic Order .... 
XLIL-IIL— Corinthian Order .... 
XLIV.-V. — Composite Order 

XLVI. — Claps and Bases to the several Pedestals 
XL VII. — Bases of the several Columns 
XLVIIL — Architraves of the Orders 
XLIX. — Imposts of Arches 
L.-LI. — Classic Doors and Windows 
LII.-III. — (Jreeian and Roman Mouldings 



FRACTICAL ( 



LIV.— Problems . 
LV.— The Ellipse . 
LVI.— The Parabola and Hyperbola 



PRACTICAL CARPENTRY. 



LVII. — Arches 
LVIII.-IX.-LX.— Groins 



JOINERY. 

LXI.-II.-IIL— Geometrical Staii^lines ......... 13G 

LXIV, — Moulded Architrave ......... 142 

LXV. — Designs for Door and Window Architraves ...... 144 

LXVI. — Designs for Moulded Pauelings ........ 14G 



CONSTRUCTIYE ARCHITECTURE, 



BRIEF HISTORICAL NOTICE 

OF 

CELEBRATED DOMES, 

AKCIEKT AKD MOBERK. 



A Dome is an arched or vaulted roof, springing from a polygonal, circular, or elliptic 
plan; presenting a convex surface on the outside or a concavity within, so as that 
every horizontal section may he of similar figure and have a common vertical axis. 
According to the plan from which they sprmg, domes are either circular, elliptical, or 
polygonal; of these the circular may be spherical, spheroidal, ellipsoidal, hyperboloidal, 
paraboloidal, etc. The word dome is applied to the external part of the spherical or 
polygonal roof, and cupola to the internal. But the terms are frequently used synou}-- 
mously, although perhaps incorrectly. Such as rise higher than the radius of the base 
are denominated surmounted domes; those that are of a less height than the radius 
are called dlminlslied or surbased; and such as have circular bases are termed cupolas. 

The remains of ancient domes are generally spherical in their form. Ruins of 
numerous ones still exist m the neighborhood of Rome and Naples. They were 
frequently used among the Romans, after the accession of Augustus, in whose reign the 
use of the arch, and consequently of domes, became common. The arch indeed is 
of Grecian origin, though in all the ancient edifices of that country we do not meet 



10 CONSTRUCTI VK ARCHITECTURE. 

with a single instance of a built dome; that which covers the monument of Lysicrates, 
being only a single stone, can be looked upon but as a lintel; and the invention of 
this species of vault seems justly attributed to the Romans or Etrurians. 

Principal among the ruins of domes in and about Rome, are those of the temples 
of Bacchus, A^esta, Eonudus, Hercules, C'ybele, Neptune, and ^'enus. The oklest and 
most magnificent is that of the Pantheon, built in the reign of Augustus. It is still 
entire, and consists of a hemispherical concavity, enriched with coffers, and terminat- 
ing in an aperture called tue eye. Tlie exterior rises from several degrees, in a 
sloping direction, nearly tangent to the several internal quoins, and presenting to the 
spectator the truncated segment of a sphere considerably less than a hemisphere. 

The dome of the temple of Bacchus is also internally hemispherical, though 
Avithout cofters. Externally it is now covered with a connnon roof, which may have 
been the original form; a similar roof is also to be seen over the dome of the temple 
of Jupiter, in the Palace of Diocletian, at Spolatro. 

The dome of Santa Sophia, at Constantinople, built in the reign of Justinian, is 
the most remarkable constructed after those of the Romans, and ranks next to the 
Pantheon in point of antiquity. Anthemius of Tralles, and Isidorus of Miletus, were 
the architects. Anthemius had promised to raise a dome over this edifice, whose 
magnitude should eclipse the magnificence of tlie Roman Pantheon. With this view 
he erected four pillars, at the distance of one hundred and fifteen feet from each 
other, and filled up the angular spaces between the archi-vanlts till he had gradu- 
ally shaped them into a complete circle, at the level of the extradoses of the arches. 
On the ring thus formed the dome was raised, being the first ever built on pendentives. 
Notwithstanding the precautions taken by the architect to resist the pressure of the 
arches, by walls and abutting half domes, the superstructure gave way toward the east, 
and fell at the end of a few months, taking with it the half dome on that side. After 
the death of Anthemius, Isidorus strengthened the eastern pillars by filling up cer- 
tain voids left Ijy his predecessor; but they still proved too weak for the support of 
so great a load, and when the dome was turned upon them again gave way before 
the work was completed. To counteract this thrust on the east, Isidorus now built 
strong pillared buttresses against the eastern wall of a sc^uare cloister that ran round 
the building, from which he threw flying buttresses over the void, and raised the dome 
a third time, but with very little success; for though every precaution was taken to 
lessen its weight, bv using light materials and reducing its thickness, the arches were 



CELEBRATED DOMES. n 

so much fractured that he was under the necessity of filHng up the Large arcades on 
the north and south sides with arches of less dimensions, in three stories. 

These circumstances are mentioned to show that the architects of the age to which 
this building is referred, were not so well acquainted with the principles of dome-vaulting 
as those of more modern date; for the latter would probably have hooped or chained 
such a dome immediately over the arches and pendentives, so as to confine its pressure 
to a perpendicular thrust, or nearly so, as was done by Michael Angelo in the erection 
of the far more ponderous dome of St. Peter's, at Rome; and still more recently hy 
Sir Christopher Wren, in the cupola of St. Paul's, at London. The present dome, 
however, of Santa Sophia, was reconstructed by the nephew of Isidorus. It rests on 
the square formed at the intersection of the arms of the Greek cross, and is sup- 
ported by corbellings placed in the angles of the square. The lower part of the 
dome has a row of windows adorned with columns on the exterior, and the top is 
surmounted by a lantern, on which is a cross. 

The dome of St. Marli's, at Venice, erected about the 3-ear 973, and that of the 
cathedral, at Pisa, built early in the eleventh century, are both similar in plan to the 
preceding. 

The dome of San Vitale, at Ravenna, is of very curious construction. The plan 
of the lower part is that of an octagon, supported by eight piers at the angle of the 
dome. Above, the wall sustains a semi-spherical dome; the plan being a circle within 
an octagon. 

In 1298, the Cathedral of Santa Maria del Foire was begun at Pisa, by the cele- 
brated Arnolfo Lusii; he died two years after. No architect could be found to exe- 
cute the dome upon the vast plan its projector had designed; it consequently remained 
unfinished for one hundred and twenty years, when, in a professional convocation, 
Philip Brunelleschi was permitted to attempt its completion. Notwithstanding the 
opposition and the sarcasms of his contemporaries, who held his scheme to be imprac- 
ticable, he carried on the building, and completed the cupola in a manner worthy of 
his great reputation. This dome, which is octangular and of great elevation, is formed 
of two vaults, with a vacancy between them, and is supported merely by the springing 
wall, without the aid of buttresses, though its dimensions exceed those of all the 
ancient Roman domes, Avith the single exception of St. Peter's. 

The cathedral churcli of St. Peter's, at Rome — the largest temple ever built — was 
begun by Bramante in 1513, and carried on successively by Raphael, San Gallo, and 



PLATE I. 



..vc.jtc- 



Is a perspective view, s?liowing the interior of dome, in connection witli a design for a large 
apartment or hall, intended to convey in some sort an illustration of the purposes to which a 
dome of this description may be more particularly applied. First, we shall briefly notice a few 
of the structnres in which the use of this peculiar form of covering is most desirable and appro- 
priate, and then proceed to give such simple and concise explanations of the succeeding plates as 
■will servo to illustrate the design and give to the intelligent mechanic a clear idea of the intended 
moile of Construction. 

AVc have elsewhere referred to domes as more exclusively applied to Pagan temples, at their 
first origin, and afterwards by the great masters of the middle and succeeding ages in the erection 
of Christian churches. But the design here introduced is intended more particularly for such 
structures as the increasing wants of modern civilization render necessary. 

It may be described as hemispherical, and would form an attractive feature in designs intended 
for secular uses. In buildings connected with the administration of the affairs of government, 
whether judicial or legislative; in those intended for post-office purposes, or the receipt of customs; 
in civic halls, in which in crowded connnunities at least one noble apartment should bo reserved for 
the use of the people and occasions of public ceremonial; and in the great marts of commerce, 
amid the hum of business, it would form a fitting apex to the Exchange, "where merchants most 
do congregate." 

\Vc might also instance colleges and academies for literary, scientific, or artistic purposes, and 
a variety of similar institutions, in which its introduction would be useful, ornamental, and appro- 
priate. 

(12) 



CELEBRATED DOMES. 13 

Michael Angelo, the latter of whom designed the dome as it now appears. It is 
impossible, in limits like the present, to give more than a very l:)rief and restricted 
notice of the characteristic features of this magnificent effort of genius. The dome, 
which is double, is circular on the plan. The internal dome is constructed on double 
consoles, instead of corbellings. The doulale consoles are crowned with a small cor- 
nice, forming an impost for eight arches, from the upper part of which springs the 
dome; on the top is a lantern light, which is not apparent externally. 

Up to this time domes had been constructed on walls and corbellings; but in St. 
Peter's a new plan was adopted. The dome stands upon four piers. From the arches 
spring the corbellings, which are finished by an entablature. Upon this entablature is a 
plinth. The plinth is externally an octagon, and internally a circle. The external 
diameter of the octagon is 192 feet 9 inches, and the internal circle 134 feet Sh inches. 
On the plinth is a circular stylobate, above which is placed the drum of the dome. The 
construction is formed of rubble and fragments of Ijrick. The interior is formed 
with bricks stuccoed. Externally the work is faced with thin slabs of travestine 
stone. The drum is pierced with sixteen windows. The walls are strengthened on 
the outside, between the windows, with sixteen buttresses. When the base of the 
drum had been built to the height of the entablature of the dome, Michael Angelo 
died; but some time before his death he had caused a model to Idc made, to which 
he added drawings and instructions. After his death, Pirro Ligorio and Vignola were 
appointed the architects. Giacomo della Porta, the pupil of Vignola, followed his 
master as architect; but although the designs of Michael Angelo were strictly fol- 
lowed, the dome itself was constructed under the pontificate of Sixtus V. Sixtus 
gave Giacomo, as a colleague, Domenico Fontana, by whom the dome was constructed. 

On the construction of Michael Angelo, a circular attic was first formed. This 
attic is strengthened externally by sixteen projections, placed over the buttresses of 
the dome; on the attic rises the double dome, the internal diameter of which at the 
base is 138 feet 5 inches. The curve externally is an arc of a circle, whose radius 
is about 84 feet. At the height of 27 feet 8 inches from the attic the dome is 
solid. At the base the thickness is 9 feet 7 inches. The circular space which 
divides the two domes is 3 feet 2i inches wide; and the height from the attic to 
the opening of the lantern is 83 feet 10 inches. The external dome is pierced with 
three rows of small windows, and is joined to the internal by sixteen walls or spurs, 
diminishing in thickness as they ascend to the lantern. The l^ase of the lantern is 



PLATE II. 

Is double. Fii^. 1 represents the transverse section, showing a portion of tlie roof over pedi- 
ments, and the internal finish of the dome and tambour. Fig. 2 is the finished plan of the above, 
showing also the plan of soffet of segmental arch. It will be seen that it is proposed to use wood 
in the entire framing and construction. 

The cheapness of timber, and the facility with which it can be procured in this country, as 
well its lightness and its adaptation, owing to the comparative dryness of the atmosphere, render 
it a most facile and useful material in constructions of this character, so that where economy is 
desirable light and graceful forms may be put up over even comparatively small structures. 

The internal finish is intended to be of plaster, laid off in sunk panels with enriched mould- 
ings, with a bold and handsome cornice running around the rim, just above the apex of segmental 
arch. The middle row of panels should have alternate perforations, filled in with glass, which 
might be stained, if preferred. 

The tambour is intended to bo finished with an ornamental balustrade running around an aper- 
ture of considerable diameter, technically called the eye, just above the point of its separation from 
the dome. The ceiling is coved with sunk panels, having similar enrichments to those below, 
and finished with an appropriate cornice. The circumference is filled with eight circular windows, 
which are designed to assist in lighting the hall through the aperture before mentioned. 

(14) 



CELEBRATED DOMES. 15 

arched, and piex'ced with small windows. Above the two domes is a circular plat- 
form, surrounded with an iron gallery. In the centre rises the lantern on a stylo- 
bate, broken into sixteen parts, forming projecting pedestals, on which are buttresses 
decorated externally with coupled Ionic colunuis, and having the space between filled 
with arched openings which give light to the lantern. The external diameter of 
the lantern is 39 feet; the height from the platform to the top of the cross 89 feet 
7 J inches; and the whole height, from the external plinth of the dome to the cross, 
263 feet. The total height internally, to the top of the dome of the lantern, is 
387 feet. 

St. Paul's Cathedral, London, the work of the great Wren, was begun in 1675, 
and finished in 1710. The dome is placed over the intersection of the four naves. 
The ground plan is a regular octagon, four of the sides being formed by the four 
great arches of the naves, the other four by false arches of the same size. By this 
means eight supports are obtained instead of four, and the corbellings do not project 
too much as in similar constructions. They gather in a circle and are surmounted 
by a complete entablature, decorated with consoles. The cornice is 98 feet Oi inches 
from the pavement. The height of the drum is 62 feet 6* inches to the springing 
of the internal dome. The interior of the drum is decorated with a continuous 
stylobate, on which is an order of Corinthian pilasters. The thirty-two spaces be- 
tween these are filled with twenty-four windows and eight niches. The drum is 
decorated externally with an order of thirty-two Corinthian columns, united to the 
wall by eight solid constructions in masonry. Above the internal order of the drum 
rises the interior dome, the diameter of which at the springing is 102 feet 2 J inches 
by 51 feet in height. The external dome is constructed of wood, covered with lead 
and decorated with projecting ribs, forming panels curved at the ends. This dome 
terminates with a finishing which joins the base of the lantern, which is supported 
on a conical tower terminated by a spherical dome. 

About the same time that Wren built the dome of St. Paul's, Hardouin Man- 
sard, a French architect, constructed the dome of the Invahdes, at Paris. The plan 
of this dome is a square, on which is inscribed a Greek cross; in the angles of the 
square there are four chapels. The dome, which is douljle, rises in the centre of 
the cross from a springing which is common to both. The base supporting it is an 
octagonal figure. The internal dome, constructed with masonry, is spherical. The 
outer dome is spheroidal, constructed of stone at the base and brick above. It is 



PLATE III. 

Is a trausvorsc section sliowing the timbers. It will be unnecessary to give a description of 
this plate, as tlic next will more fully eluciJate the plan of construction. Of the two diagrams, 
the larger represents the plan of the tambour at its base; the lesser that of the ribs and apex. 

(10) 




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CELEBRATED DOMES. 17 

framed of wood and covered with lead, like St. Paul's. The total height to the top 
of the cross which surmounts the lantern is 330 feet. 

The modern Pantheon, at Paris, formerly the Church of St. Genevieve, was built 
b3' Soufflot^ a distinguished architect, in the reign of Louis XV. The dome, which 
is lofty, is sustained by four pillars, arched over the cross parts. It is similar in 
some respects to St. Paul's. 

Of wooden domes, that of the Ilalle du Bled, also at Paris, is an excellent ex- 
ample, being more than 200 feet in diameter and only one foot in thickness. 

The Chevalier de Montferrand has lately employed a new material in the con- 
struction of the dome of the Church of St. Isaac, at St. Petersburg. A brief account 
of tlie construction may be interesting. A series of twenty-four cast-iron ribs, rest- 
ing on a plate of similar material 7 feet wide, runs quite round the circumference of 
the top of the cornice of the colonnade, which girds the drum. All these ribs are 
attached at their heads to a horizontal plate or curb, G feet 3 inches wide, which fol- 
lows the periphery of the dome. At this height the rib is divided into two parts, 
one of which, 12 feet 6 inches deep, follows the sweep of the inner dome for a 
height of 20 feet, and is bolted at its summit to a perforated cylinder of cast-iron 
21 feet in diameter and 7 feet high, which forms the centre aperture at the summit 
of the inner dome. The other part follows the line of an intermediate cone, with 
a catenary outline, similar to the one in St. Paul's. It is also 21 feet long, 2 feet 
6 inches deep, with perforations to render it lighter. The conical ribs have then 
another length of 21 feet, and are again connected by another plate, from which 
spring the circular ribs, about IG feet long, forming a dome to the intermediate cone, 
with their heads also Ijoltcd to a cylinder 8 feet 6 inches in diameter and 18 inches 
high. The upper portions of these riljs diverge at the top, so as to form a base for the 
octagonal cupolino, which consists of a series of cast-iron story posts, ribs, and bracket- 
ings, including the dome, with its ball and cross at the apex, which last are of brass gilt. 
The spaces between the ribs are filled in with pots, rendered on their surfaces with 
plaster and painted with sacred subjects. The outer dome is covered externally with 
bronze gilt. Tlie whole entablature and flat, and the balustrade over the peristyle 
of the drum of the cupola likewise consist of cast and wrought-iron framing, fixced 
with plates of copper, which form the profiles and mouldings. The twenty-four 
pedestals of this balustrade carry winged angels of bronze, above 9 feet high, each 
of a single casting. The roofing is wholly of iron, covered with copper. The skele- 

c 



PLATE IV. 

Is the plan. It will be seen tliat tlie biise is a si[u;n-o, having two of its sides formed of 
the walls and pilasters; the other two being framed of trusseil girders, placed immediately over the 
crown of the arches, of which they also form the support. 'Within the si^uare, struts are placed 
diagonally at the four corners, so as to form the angles of a perfect octagon. These angle-struts 
are also trussed, and securely liolted to the tie-beams or girders at one end, having their opposite 
extremities resting upon the walls. Over these is placed a horizontal course of look-out joists, 
the ends of which converge toward the centre, and are cut ofi' at equidistant lengths therefrom, 
thereby forming the circle upon which the rim or base of the dome is supported. From this rim 
spring all the ribs of the superstructure. These ribs have a strut or foot-l)race securely toed into 
each, as also into the corresponding joist beneath. By these means the look-out joists are relieved 
of the greater portion of the weight, as it is necessarily distributed so as to cause the largest pro- 
portion to lean upon the walls and trussed beams. The pendentives are worked up from the 
spring of the lower arches to tlie base or rim, from which point starts the regular formation of the 
dome. 

The lower rim of a dome of this diameter and construction can bo most readily formed of 
hrce thicknesses of two-inch plank, cut in sections of the circle and bolted together with overlap- 
ping joints. The upper rim may be similarly constructed, and also the ribs. For these latter, 
however, two thicknesses will suffice. These should be put togethei- in pairs, each pair forming 
a stile. 

The cross-ties arc to be placed so as to leave openings for the panels. Two inches will be a 
sufficient thickness for these in a dome of this dimension. Cleats can lie nailed on for the sink- 
ing of the panelling. 

Fig. 1, on Plate IV., shows the elevation of the girders A A. 

Fig. 2. The ground plan; one portion showing the connection of the angle pieces with their 
bearings, and the manner in wdiich they are trussed. The other half shows all the timbers of the 
dome in their relative positions. 

AVe may add, in conclusion, that in a dome of this description the use of fresco painting and 
gilding, with other modes of decorative embellishment, can be introduced with admirable effect, both 
upon the walls and ceiling. If to these wore added the laying of the Ihinr with encaustic tiles, 
the coup d'ail would be still furtlier heightened, and a beautiful effect produced. In some of the 
European domes which the author has seen, as that of the Inralides, at Paris, the rays of light 
streaming from above, and e(jually distributed throughout the interior, blend the variegated colors 
in one harmonious whole, heightening their brilliancy, and Hooding over the lloor and walls such 
rich and gohh-n hues as almost insensibly to remind one of the legendary visions of fairy-land. 

(IS) 







. im 

iLD 

!m 



frn 



3 



III I , i o 
I II ,11 ID 



■R -D§ ^ ^ i jr-ia- 



CELEBRATED DOMES. 19 

ton of the entablature of the peristyle is of cast and wrought iron, resting on and 
affixed to the columns by wrought-iron pins let into the shafts to a considerable depth. 
The frame work is also let into the cylindrical wall of the dome, and securely affixed 
to templates. The cornice rests on cast-iron corbels, and the caissons and rosettes 
also rest on cast-iron girders. The total weight of metals of all descriptions em- 
ployed in this great work, amounts to the enormous quantity of nearly 1967 tons. 
The careful skill with which the architect has fulfilled his part, and the fine taste 
and discrimination which he has displayed in the decorative embellishment of the 
Church of St. Isaac's, render it one of the most beautiful and striking edifices of the 
century. 

Square turrets, surmounted with domes, bearing resemblance to a bell in their 
outline, were frequently used in the reign of Elizabeth, and her successor, the First 
James. 

Domes are sometimes made convex below and concave above, the former taking 
up a much greater proportion of the side than the latter; these may be variously 
denominated Moresque, Turkish, or Hindoo. 

All the ancient Roman domes are, on the convex side, a much less portion of 
a sphere than a hemisphere; but these, from the completion of the Church of Santa 
Sophia to the finishing of St. Paul's cupola, are of the surmounted kind, approach- 
ing gradually nearer and nearer to the proportion of those beautiful spires wdiich 
were so universally adopted and admired in the middle ages. In the dome of St. 
Paul's, the sides of the section are struck from centres in the base line, which, if 
continued, w^ould meet in an angle in the axis of the dome. Since the revival of 
Grecian architecture, the contour of the old Pioman dome has also been revived, espe- 
cially in cases where other parts of the building are decorated with any of the orders. 
Exterior domes should never be applied to buildings in the pointed style of archi- 
tecture. 

The following are the admeasurements of some of the most celebrated domes of 
Europe : — 



20 CONSTRUCTIVE ARCHITECTURE. 

TABLE OF AD.AIKASl KE.MEMS OF SOME OF THE MOST CELEBRATED DOMES OF EUROPE. 

DOMES OF AXTKiUITY. 

Feet in Iluiglit from 

diiiineter esicnially. the grouud Hue. 

Dome of thu ruiillioou 142 U3 

Miuen-:i Mediea, at Rome *7S 97 

Rathsof Caracalla 112 IIG 

Baths of Diock'tian 14 83 

Temple of Diana OS 78 

" Proseriiine and Yenus 87 77 

DOMES CO-MRARATIYELY MODERN. 

Santa Sophia, at Constantinople 11.5 201 

Mosipie of Aehraet 92 120 

San Yitale, at Ravenna 55 91 

FROM THE TIME OF BRUNELLESCHI. 

Santa Maria (lei Fiore, at Fhirence 139 310 

The Chapel of the Medici 91 199 

St. rater's, at Rome 139 330 

Chajiel of the Superga, at Turin 04 128 

Invalidcs, at Paris 80 173 

Yal de Grace, Paris 55 133 

Pantheon, or St, ({enevi.'ve, Paris 67 190 

St. Paul's Cathedral, London 112 215 



PRINCIPLES AND CONSTRUCTION OF ROOFS, 



GENERAL DEFINITION OF THE TERMS EMPLOYED. 



TuE necessity of some place of shelter from the inclemency of the weather must 
have been experienced bj' mankind in the very earliest stages of barbarism; the 
origin, therefore, of covered habitations, is lost in the remote obscurity of time. The 
first shelter of the savage must have been very rude indeed. When ready formed 
abodes, such as caverns, or the hollows of trees, failed him, it is probable that his 
untutored ingenuity devised no better refuge than could be derived from the boughs 
of trees, covered with moss and twigs, or the rough skins of animals. 

Did our limits permit, it might be curious to trace from this rude origin the 
gradual development of a perfect roof, till from this Sylvan abode to the wigwam of 
the Red Indian or the more finished tenement of the South Sea Islander, we arrived 
at the elaborate constructions of later and more enlightened races. 

The simplest and earliest description of roof was doubtless formed by two rafters 
pitching against each other; but the ol:)jection, that the rafters had a tendency to 
spread, and thrust out the walls on which they rested, must soon have Ijecome appa- 
rent. This led to the introduction of the tie-beam, which, in conjunction with the 
rafters, gives us that simple form of roof of which mention is made in the earliest 
records, and which is still in general use among us. 

The ancient Eastern nations had their roofs quite tiat. The Greeks appear to 
have been the first who made them with a declination each way, from the middle to 

(211 



PLATE V. 

Fig. 1 is a design for a roof wliosc spun may extend from 100 to 110 feet. By the method 
here shown, the tie-beam is suspended by iron rods instead of queen-posts. Cast-iron heads arc 
also introduced at the apex, and where the rafters and camber-beams unite; and iron shoes are 
used at the points where the straining-sills and braces butt. In this example the tie-beam has 
shoes which extend from the heel to the principal truss-bolt on either side, and arc bolted to the 
beam through pieces of hard wood two inches thick by six inches wide, which are equally notched 
into both at regular distances. The centre of the tic-beam is trussed by pieces springing from 
the foot of the truss-bolts, with a straining-sill secured to the upper side. The camber-beam is 
trussed with spur-braces and straining-pieces, and is suspended from the principals by iron rods. 
A story can easily bo fitted up in a roof of this description, if reijuired, by placing joists upon the 
tie-beam between the truss-bolts, and flooring them over. In a span of 100 feet a height of 10 
feet can easily bo procured for this purpose, between the tie and camber-beams. By reference to 
the plate it will be seen that the purlins are intended to be notched into the principals, and the 
common-rafters into the purlins. The heels are secured by stirrups, in addition to the necessary 
bolts. The camber in the tie-beam should be 5 inches in a span of 100 feet ; that in the camber- 
beam should be 2 inches; all the connections with the iron heads and shoes will be rule-jointed. 
Fig. 2 is the cast-iron head drawn to a large scale, so as clearly to show the joints. Fig. 3 is 
a section showing the tie-beam with the shoe beneath; the cast-iron shoe; the straining-sill; the 
brace; and the butt joint of the truss in centre of beam. Fig. 4 shows the heel of the rafter 
and the mode of bolting it to the tie-beam; the position of the iron stirrup; and the form of 
construction for gutter. Fig. 5 is a section of the camber-beam, showing the connection of the 
spur-brace and straining-sill. Fig. 6 is the apex, showing the iron head and its connection with 
the truss-rafters. Fig. 7 is a portion of the camber-beam, showing the iron head, and the con- 
nection with the rafters by means of the suspension-rod and braces. Fig. 8 represents a part 
of the centre of the tie-beam, with the head of the truss. 



TABLE GIYIXG DIMENSIONS OF TOIBERS. 

Braces to straining-sill . . . . 6 x 10 inche 

Upper braces C, •' " 

Shoe beneath tie-licam . . . . S 10 " 

Purlins 5 •; 10 

Common-rafters 3x 5 " 

Look-out joists 3 X 10 

Ceiling joists 3X8 



Tie-beam 


. 10 


1 inches 


Up|)er principal-ran ers . . 


. 10 


U " 


Lower " " . . . 


. 10 


JO .. 


Camber-beani 


10 


14 " 


Truss-rafter aljove do. do. 


. 10 


1-i 


Spur-brace to do. do. . . . 


. 10 


■ 12 ■■ 


Straining-piece to do. do. 


. 10 


X 10 " 


Straining-sill 


. 8X10 " 



PRINCIPLES AND CONSTRUCTION OF ROOFS. 23 

the edges. This was but gentle, the height from the ridge to the level of the wall 
not exceeding one-ninth or one-eighth of the span, as may be seen by the remains of 
many of their ancient temples. In most of the old public and private edifices of 
Britain, the equilateral triangle seems to have been considered the standard, till the 
decline of what is termed Gothic architecture. The ridge was then somewhat low- 
ered; the rafters Ijeiug made three-fourths of the breadth of the building. This 
was called true pifcli ; but sulxscquently the designation seems to have been applied 
to the square. The heights of roofs were further depressed from the square to one- 
third, and from that to the fourth; but with us they are frequently executed much 
lower, the pitch being regulated hj a variety of causes. 

When executed with judgment, a roof is one of the principal ties of a building, 
as it l:)inds the exterior walls to the interior, and to the partitions, which act like 
strong counterforts against them. 

Roofs are of various forms, according to the nature of the plan, and the law of 
the horizontal and vertical sections. The most simple form is that which has only 
one row of timbers, arranged in an inclined plane, which throws the roof entirely to 
one side. This is called a shed roof, or lean to. 

The best form for a rectangular building consists of two rectangular planes of 
equal breadth, equally inclined, and terminating in a line parallel to the horizon. 
This is sometimes called a ixnt roof. 

Roofs Hat on the top are said to be truneated. These are frequently employed 
with a view to diminish the height, so as not to predominate over that of tlie walls. 

When all the four sides of the roof are formed by inclined planes, it is said to 
be hijjped, and is therefore called a hipped roof; the inclined ridge springing from the 
angle of the walls being called the hip. Roofs of this description are frequently 
truncated. 

Roofs upon circular bases, with all their horizontal sections circular, the centres 
of the circles being in a straight line draAvn from the centre of the base perpen- 
dicular to the horizon, are called revoh:ed rocjfs, or roofs of revolution. 

When the plan of the roof is a regular polygon, or a circle, or an ellipsis, the 
horizontal sections being all similar to the l^ase, and the vertical section a portion of 
any curve convex to the outside, the roof is called a dome. 

For the convenience of the reader it will be necessary to explain such terms as 
are used in roof construction, by way of definitions. 



PLATE VI. 

Is an example of an open timber roof, in that later form of the Gothic or pointc^l style 
termed perpendicular; a style ^vhieh has of late years come into rather extensive use in this 
country. The example here presented is of such construction as more particularly adapts it for 
roofs of large buildings, and may be used with perfect safety in cases where the span extends from 
IJO to 80 feet. Fig. 1 shows the construction across the entire span, one half of which exhibits 
the naked framing. The corresponding half is displayed in a finished state, with its mouldings, 
etc., all of which are planted on the framing. The tracery and spandrels are also formed and 
filled in, separately from the timbers. The roof being drawn correctly to a scale, and in such a 
manner as to make all the constructive features and detail perfectly intelligible to an ordinary 
mechanic, but little further need be added by way of description. A roof of such considerable 
span, having no tie-beam, must necessarily have two collar-beams, as well as hammer-beams, which 
are a marked peculiarity of the style. Of the tie-beams, the upper is slightly tenoned into the 
principal-rafters; the lower, to make it perfectly secure, requires straps on either side and across 
the back of the rafter, and will require to be still further tightened by the introduction of jibs 
and keys. The upper collar-beam and king-post may be halved together, and have their ends 
and braces tenoned into the principal-rafters and pinned. If thought necessary, a small joint- 
bolt may bo used in each of the latter. The form and framing of the hammer-beams, the collar 
braces, and the footing of the rafters, are clearly shown and explained by the drawing. Hoofs 
of this description are usually constructed of pine timber, having the various mouldings, span- 
drels, etc., finished of the same material, and grained in imitation of oak, or stained and varnished. 
In this design, the common-rafters are not exposed. They are intended to be lined on the lower 
side with narrow worked boards with beaded joints. For these yellow pine is preferable. By 
this mode of finish a free circulation of air is obtained within the space formed by the sheathing 
for the roof and the lining of the ceiling. Figs. 2 and 3 are portions of the roof drawn to a 
large scale, so as more clearly to show the form of the detail and finish, and the mode of con- 
struction. 

TABLE SnOWINC; THE DI.MEXSIONS OF THE TIMBERS. 

rciident-post .... 10 9 inches. 

Upper cuUar-beaiu ... 10 

King-post 10 S " 

Braces 10 i) " 

Biilgc-pieee 4 10 

Coumioii-rafters .... 3 S " 



A 


Priiieipal-raflers 


j; 


L.nvereollar-beai 





Ilammer-beaiii . 


T) 


Ilammer-brace . 


(J 


Collar-brace 


II 


Side-post . . . 



10 
10 


. 14 
14 

k; 


ncbcs. 


E 
F 
I 


10 


10 




KK 


10. 


. 10 


" 


L 


10- 


.u 


" 


M 



PRINCIPLES AND CONSTPvUCTION OF ROOFS. 25 

WaU-plafes. Pieces of timber laid on the walls, in order to distribute the pres- 
sure of the roof equally, and to bind the walls together. 

Trusses. Strong frames of carpentry, generally of a triangular form, supporting 
the covering. They are disposed at equal distances, and are used when the expansion 
of the walls is too great to admit of common-rafters alone, wliich would be in danger 
of being bent or broken by the weight of the covering, for want of some intermediate 
suj^port. 

Tie. Any piece of timber connected at its extremities to two others, acted upon 
by opposite pressures, which have a tendency from each other. 

Strcdning-inece. A piece of timber connected at its extremities to two others, 
acted upon by opposite pressures, which have a tendency toward each other. Hence, 
a tie acts contrary to a straining -piece. A flexible substance may be used for the 
former, but the latter must always be inflexilsle, being in a state of compression. 

Piincipal-rafters. Two pieces of timber in the sides of a truss, supporting a 
grated frame of timber work over them, on which the covering rests. 

Purlins. Horizontal pieces of timber, fixed upon the principal-rafters. 

Tie-heam. A horizontal piece of timber, connected to two opposite principal- 
rafters. It answers to prevent the walls from being pushed outward by the weight 
of the covering; and to support the ceiling of the rooms below. When placed above 
the bottom of the rafters it is called a collar-heam . 

Gommoiv-reiftcrs. Pieces of timljer of small section, placed equidistantly upon 
the purlins, and parallel to the principal-rafters. They support the covering. 

Pole-plates. Pieces of timber resting on the ends of the tie-beams, and supporting 
the lower ends of the common-rafters. 

King-post. An upright piece of timber in the middle of a truss, framed at the 
upper end into the principal - rafters, and at the lower end into the tie-beam; this 
prevents the tie-beam from sinking in the middle. 

Queen-p)osts. Two upright pieces of timber framed below into the tie-beam, and 
above into the principal -rafters, placed equidistantly from the middle of the truss, or 
its extremities. 

Struts. Oblique straining -pieces, framed below into the king or queen-posts, and 
above into the principal - rafters, which are supported by them ; or sometimes they 
have their upper ends framed into beams, which are too long to support themselves 
without bending. They are often called braces. 

D 



PLATE VII. 

Fig. 1 cxliibits a hip-roof, designed to cover a large span. The angle and intermediate, or 
cripple-rafters, as they are usually termed, are sustained by a truss which takes its bearing cen- 
tral to the heel and the principal-rafter. In this design, the queen-posts are intended to be of 
bard wood. They are secured to the tie-beam with iron stirrups, which are made fast with keys 
and jibs. The cumber-beam is sustained by an iron bolt, which passes through a cast-iron head 
inserted between the upper rafters at the apex. The tie-beam is suspended to the truss-beam, 
which supports the hip and its appendages, by iron bolts proceeding from cast heads between the 
camber-beam and trussed-rafter. In addition to this, the camber-beam is braced by three pieces 
on each side of the centre, which butt against a straining-piece. When well constructed, and 
thoroughly braced and bolted in the manner described, this roof is perfectly adequate to sustain 
itself with safety over a span extending from TO to 85 feet. Fig. 2 is the elevation of the sup- 
porting beam or truss. Fig. 3 shows the ends of the upper rafters at their junction with the 
iron head. Fig. 4 is a section showing the connection of the tie-beam with the queen-post, the 
iron stirrup, and the foot of brace. It will be seen that provision is made for flattening the 
upper section of this roof, lest the carrying out of the regular pitch line should give to it an 
objectionable height. The purlins are notched into the principals as on Plate V. The camber 
in the tie-beam should be at least three inches. It should also be clcated with l~-'-3 inch cleats, 
over which the joists should be notched; and to prevent cracks in the plastering, the whole should 
be cross lathed with 1X2 inch laths, placed 16 inches apart from the centres. By this means 
the plastering wdll be preserved from the cracks so frequently occasioned by the shrinkage of the 
timbers. By reference to the succeeding plate will be seen an isometrical view, which more 
intelligibly displays the disposition of the several timbers, showing a portion of the roof ready 
framed for the reception of the common-rafters. 

(2G) 



r-V 



■v^a 



1 o< 



"h^r 



.^'. 






W 

i C 

il L 



.'^^ 






= =-^ 


=6 




i ^ 




^ 


J 




PRINCIPLES AND CONSTRUCTION OF ROOFS. 27 

Puncheons. Short transverse pieces of timber, fixed between two others for sup- 
porting them equally, so that when any force operates on the one, the other resists 
it equally. These are sometimes called studs. 

Straininrj-heam. A piece of timber placed between two queen-posts at the upper 
ends, in order to withstand the thrust of the principal-rafters. 

Straining-sUl. A piece of timber placed at the bottom of two queen-posts, upon 
the tie-beam, in order to withstand the force of the braces, which are acted upon by 
the weight of the covering. 

Gamher-heams. Horizontal pieces of timber, made, on the upper edge, sloping 
from the middle toward each end, in an obtuse angle, for discharging the water. They 
are placed above the straining-beam, in a truncated roof, for fixing tlie boarding on 
which the lead is laid. 

Auxiliary-rafters. Pieces of timber framed in the same vertical plane with the 
principal -rafters, under and parallel to them, for giving additional support, when 
required. They are sometimes called principal-bracea, and sometimes cushion-rafters. 

Joggles. The joints at the meeting of struts with king-posts, queen-posts, or prin- 
cipal-rafters, etc. ; the best form is that which is at right-angles to the struts. 

Cogging. The particular manner of fixing the tie-beams to the wall-plates. One 
method is by dove-tailing, the other is l^y notching the under side of the tie-beam, and 
cutting the wall-plate in a reverse form to fit it. This last method is the most pre- 
ferable. 

Ridge-tree. A piece of timber fixed in the vertex of a roof, where the common- 
rafters meet on each side of it. The upper edge is higher than the rafters. 

Straps. Thin pieces of iron running across the junction of two or more parts 
of a truss, or frame of carpentry, branching out from the intersection in the direc- 
tion of the several pieces, for the purpose of securing them to each other. They 
ought always to be double, viz., one strap on each side, and their ends strongly bolted 
to each of the pieces. 

To these may be added the Cornice; in early roofs the inner wall-plate, which 
was sometimes moulded; afterwards this feature was greatly enlarged and enriched, 
and became of main importance in the roofs. 

Hammer-beain. Principally applied in Gothic architecture. A horizontal piece 
of timber lying on the wall-plates, at right-angles with the wall into which the 
principal -rafter and strut are tenoned; in some roofs, two ranges of hammer-beams 



PLATE VIII. 



Fig. 1 is an i.soinetrical view of the roof presented on tlie preceding plate. In this design 
the wall-plate upon wbich the timbers bear is 4 inches thick bj 14 inches wide, and into it the 
angle braces are notched and bolted. Into these are framed the angle pieces which support the 
angle-rafters. On this diagram are shown the relative positions and connections of the several 
timbers. Fig. 2 shows, on a large scale, the heel of the principal-rafter or truss-beam under the 
hip, and describes the method of its construction. Fig. 3 is a section showing the upper end of 
the rafter at the point of its connection with the iron head; a portion of the brace; the purlin; 
and a part of the common-rafter, with the sheathing. Fig. 4 shows the head of the (|ueen-post 
at its junction with the principal-rafter and camber-beam; the heel of the truss-rafter; a section 
of the purlin; and a portion of the common-rafter and sheathing. Fig. 5 explains the mode of 
bolting the heads of the braces to the camber-beam. 



DIMENSIONS OF THE TIMBER; 



Tie-beam of Princi 
Principal-rafters . 
Queen-posts, (oak) 
Camber-beam . . 
Upper-rafter . . 
Braces .... 
Purlins .... 



IG inches. 



Common-rafters iJ X .5 inches. 

Look-out joists 3\'I0 " 

Angle-rafters 6 • 12 

Intermediate-rafters G • 12 " 

Short studs G,-' 12 

Ceiling-joists 3X 8 



(28) 




1 liLoai,. Jtrch-' 



3,oSen-taiai'3 l_.tK TKOa 



PRINCIPLES AND CONSTRUCTION OF ROOFS. 29 

occur, in which case the upper range difiers from the lower, inasmuch, that instead 
of the principals being tenoned into them, the reverse is the case. 

Of late years many roofs have been constructed of iron, a material which began 
at first to be introduced for particular members, such as tie and suspension rods, but 
afterwards became employed for the entire truss, and sometimes for the covering like- 
wise. Iron roofs are for the most part of similar construction to those already 
described of timber, those members which are subjected to tension, such as ties and 
suspending rods, being of wrought-iron rods; and those which suffer compression, such 
as principals and struts, of cast-iron. Such roofs have been very extensively employed 
in railway works, and such like. 

Having advanced so far in our notice of roofs generally, the open Gothic roofs 
of the middle ages, differing as they do in essential matters of construction from 
those now in use, claim a portion of our attention. 

These may be classed in four divisions, namely: Roofs with tie-beams, trussed 
rafter, or single-framed roofs; Hoofs framed with hammer-beams and bi'aces; and 
Eoofs constructed with collars and braces, or with the latter only. 

Of the first, or earliest kind, it may be observed that they were never entirely 
discarded by the median' al architects; they are to be met with in Norman, early 
English, decorated and perpendicular structures. In the first named, they were pro- 
bably the only description of roofs in use. The tie-beam was sometimes used in 
mediaeval roofs, independently of the other timbers, being simply laid across the walls, 
and pinned down to the wall-plates. Many expedients were subsequently had recourse 
to by the builders, in order to retain and make it an ornamental feature in the design. 
In some instances the tie-beams are beautifully moulded; in others they are left quite 
plain, even when the roof itself is enriched with panelling and moulded ribs, and 
elaborately carved bosses. In roofs of low pitch, which appear to have been in use 
at a very early period, the beam was made to bear the whole weight of the roof 
A perfectly horizontal tie-beam is of rare occurrence; where a tie-beam is used we 
generally find it cambered, as are also the collar-beams; even the hammer-beams 
will generally be found to incline upward from the walls. 

The disagreeable effect of a straight tie-beam was often further counteracted by 
having curved braces framed from its under side, connecting it with the wall-pieces, 
thus forming an arched support for it. In roofs of higher pitch, the builders still 
endeavored, with varied success as to eflect, to retain the arched shape in conjunc- 



PLATE IX. 



Fig. 1 exLibits a method of framing commonly employed in l^p-roof^;. In this example a 
tie-beam and quecu-posts are used; it may readily be adapted to a span of from 50 to 70 feet. 
To accommodate a roof of this description to a given pitch, the upper portion may be broken at 
the queen-posts and flattened to any degree necessary, so as to lessen the height which would 
otherwise be attained should the regular line of pitch be continued. By this means a difficulty 
which often occurs in situations where a high pitch is objectionable, may be easily obviated. 
When the span is of the greatest extent advisable in roofs of this description, the camber-beam 
should be trussed. Each of the queen-posts form three sides of an octagon, to which are united 
the angle, and right-angle rafters. These are supported, where they connect with the queen- 
posts, by wrought-iron shoes, firmly bolted both horizontally and vertically with joint bolts; in 
addition to which the introduction of a thorough bolt serves firmly to secure the upper end of 
the plate to the queen-post. All these connections are fully explained by Figs. 1, 3, 4, 5, and 6, 
on Plate X. In this design, all the joints of the timbers butting against the queen-posts are 
curved or rule-jointed, so that the settlings usually occasioned by the shrinkage of the timbers 
may retain their equal bearings, whereas by the method generally pursued in making joints of 
this character, the downward tendency is calculated to destroy, in all cases, the firmness of the 
joints, no matter how perfect they may have been in their original positions. The wall-plates 
for a roof of this description should in no case be less than four inches in thickness; solidly 
embedded upon the walls, which adds much to their stability. These should also be firmly dove- 
tailed together at the angles; in addition to this an angle brace should cross each of the corners 
at a distance of from four to six feet from the angle each way, with its ends dove-taUed into the 
jilatc. The joints of the wall-plate should in all cases be made under the tie-beams, and these 
should be notched into the plate. Figs. 2 and 3 show the angle and right-angle rafters, with 
their position on the plan of hip. 

For the further elucidation of this design, wc refer the reader to the succeeding plate, which 
contains an isometrical view, and the principal connections in detail. 

(.■;o 



1 r/ 




LN?. s n^-;_il I. : .1 : 



PRINCIPLES AND CONSTRUCTION OP ROOFS. 31 

tion -with the tie-beams. This, however, is not at all to be compared with the effect 
of an unbroken arch. In many tie-beam roofs the form of the arch was entirely 
omitted, a king-post, rising from the centre of the tie-ljeam, with curved braces 
springing therefrom to the prmcipals and ridge, being substituted. Of this form 
there are various adaptations. 

Trussedr-rafter roof. This form of roof was in all likelihood chosen for the pur- 
pose of giving headway; and having once been employed, its superiority to the tie- 
beam, both in regard to construction and general appearance, led to its being preferred 
and substituted for the latter. In roofs of a wide span, each pair of rafters had a 
collar, and was also further stiflened by braces, crossing at times above the collar, 
and at others tenoned into its under side. In good examples of this form of cover- 
ing, each separate pair of rafters is trussed, so that, viewed from below, it presents 
somewhat the ajDpearance of an arched ceiling; the soffit of the arch (if it may be 
so termed) of this kind of roof is pentagonal, the two lower inclined sides being 
formed by the lower part of the rafters themselves, the two next by braces passing 
obliquely from one rafter to its opposite, and the upper or horizontal side by the 
collar which intersects the braces. In roofs of this character, the rafters generally 
extended to the outside of the Avails and formed the eaves; consequently, the walls 
being of great thickness, and never carried up higher than the wall-plates, a con- 
siderable space intervened on the inside between the top of the wall and the under- 
side of the rafter. Instead of allowing the rafter to pitch upon a plate laying near the 
outside of the wall, which would have afforded but a very insecure hold, the builders 
of old made use of the entire thickness of the wall, by filling up this space with 
struts on a line with the wall, which were framed into the under side of the rafters; 
and by connecting these with the foot of each rafter by a horizontal piece of timber, 
into which each was framed, so as to assume the form of a triangle whose base was 
equal to the thickness of the wall, they contrived to obtain an excellent hold. This, 
perhaps, gave the first idea of the beautiful hammer-beam roofs tliat still adorn so 
many sacred and other edifices. 

Hammer-beam roofs come next in succession. Among the many varieties of this 
description of roof, we may notice, first, those formed of hammer-beams, collars, and 
struts, connected together with curved braces. Secondly, those in which the collar- 
beam is omitted and the curved braces are carried up almost to the ridge, and framed 
at the apex of the arch into wedge-framed struts, into which the principals are also 



PLATE X. 

Fig. 1 presents an isomctrical view of the roof contained on Plate IX., by which the dispo- 
sition and relative positions of tlie timbers, with their connections, etc., can be more easily under- 
stood. Tills view embraces one of the intermediate principal -rafters, the timbers of which are 
of lighter dimension than those of that which supports the hip or angle-rafters. The interme- 
diate tie-beams are attached to the queen-posts by stirrups, with jibs and keys, instead of the 
joint bolts employed to sustain those at either end. Fig. 2 explains the connection of the angle 
and principal-rafters with the head of the queen-post. Each of tliosc are bolted through the 
queen-post at right-angles with the pitch of the roof. Fig. 3 shows the connection of these 
rafter.? with the braces at the foot of the queen-post. Fig. 4 displays a section of the tie-beam 
and queen-post, as secured together by an iron plate and joint bolts. Fig. 5 is the plan, show- 
ing the under sides of the tie-beams and their connections below the queen-post. Fig. 6 is a 
transverse section of Fig. 4. 

The purlins are notched into tlie principal -rafters, and the common-rafters into the purlins. 
The thickness of the various bolts will of course be regulated by the extent of the span of 
the roof. 

The following table gives the dimensions necessary for the several timbers in a roof of seventy 
feet span : — 



Tie-beam, (supporting angle-raf 


tcrs) i) ■ K; 


nehes. 


Tie-beam, (of intermediate-rafter 


S-- 10 inch 


Principal-rafter to do. . . . 


. 1) • k; 




Priueipal-raftcr, 


8 ■ ir, 


Camber-beam " ... 


'.I .-. 16 




Camber-beam, 


8,.-vl6 ' 


Queen-posts " ... 


. 14 X 14 




Queeu-posts, " " 


8X16 ' 


Braces " ... 


S>< 8 




Braces, " " 


7X 7 ' 


Comraon-rafters 


3X 1 




Purlins 


4 <10 ' 


Truss-rafters to camber-beam 


. 6X 8 









PRINCIPLES AND CONSTRUCTION OF ROOFS. 33 

tenoned. Thirdly, hammer-beam roofs having collar-beams and no struts; and lastly, 
those which have neither collar-beams nor struts. The following is an example of 
this description, in which the arched brace is formed of three pieces of timber, about 
three inches in thickness, one on either side, tenoned into the hammer-beam and 
principal and reaching up as flxr as the purlin, the centre piece forming the apex of 
the arch, being tenoned into each principal, and itself acting as a brace, and to a 
certain extent as a collar-beam. 

These are the most usual varieties of this beautiful form of roof, although there 
are many other minor differences to be met with. 

In roofs with complete collar-beams, the arched braces were usually made in four 
pieces, two uniting the hammer-beams with the lower half of the principals, and the 
other two connecting the upper halves with the collar-beam. There are many 
examples of roofs having two ranges of hamnicr-beams. The object of these second 
ranges, with their braces and struts, was further to stiffen the principals, and bring 
what strain there might be on them to the lower range, and thence directly on to 
the wall; the effect produced by these two series of hammer-beams is generally less 
pleasing than that of a single hammer-beam roof. AVhen they occur the roof is 
usually of less pitch than when one set is used. 

Collar-braced roofs constitute the last division. These also include roofs braced 
together without collar-beams; the braces, which are usually curved, simply connect- 
ing the wall pieces and principals together. This style of roof is a natural simpli- 
fication of the hammer-beam roof. The curved braces, besides bringing the different 
timbers together, serve two other more important purposes. First, they convey the 
thrust of the roof lower down on the walls, where they can offer a greater resistance 
to any lateral pressure; and in the next place, they serve as a great steadiment to 
the walls, the latter being by far the most important of their uses. 

"We will conclude this description by stating, that there are several beautiful 
specimens of mediaeval roofs, as applied to other than ecclesiastical purposes, to be 
found among the old palatial edifices and interesting pubUc halls of England. Some 
of these are in excellent preservation, and form magnificent and striking evidences 
of the taste and skill of the architects of the olden time. 

Having given these descriptions of various kinds of roofs, it may not be out of 
place to append some rules for finding the projjer scantlings of the different mem- 
bers, and the manner in which each member is affected. 

E 



PLATE XI. 

Fig. 1 represents a collar-beam roof. This method of construction is usually adopted to 
facilitate the construction of a curved ceiling. A roof of this character may be introduced for a 
span of from 50 to GO feet. The principal-rafters are bolted into the tie in the manner usually 
employed for securing them to tie-beams; and at the apex they butt with a rule joint against a 
cast-iron head, which has an iron saddle bolted over the upper side, to receive the iron stirrups to 
the tension-rods. These are secured to the rods by means of jibs and keys, as fully explained 
by Fig. 7. The lower ends of the tension-rods pass through iron shoes, to each of which they 
are secured by a nut; these shoes are placed immeiliately beneath the connection of the collar- 
beam with the tic-rafters. At this point an upright brace is placed, heading immediately under 
the junction of the opposite tie and the principal-rafters. The tics by this mode are halved 
together at their point of crossing in the centre, tenoned into the under side of the principal- 
rafters, and secured thereto by joint bolts. The collar-beam is of double thickness, notched one 
inch in depth each way, with a tongue or back to each of the halvings. Fig. 2 represents the 
shoe, and the halvings of the tie and collar-beam. Fig. 3 shows the extension of the heel, which 
is locked into the wall-plate, and is of sufficient length to admit of four heel bolts. Fig. 4 shows 
the manner in which the collar-beam is connected with the principal-rafter. Fig. 5 represents the 
apex, and gives the detail of the stirrups, and the mode of theii' connection with the tension-rods. 
Fig. 6 shows the connection of the tie with the principal-rafter, where it is secured by the joint 
bolt. Fig. 7 we have previously referred to. 

(34) 



PRINCIPLES AND CONSTRUCTION OF ROOFS. 35 

King-post. The king-post is intended to support the ceiling, and, by means of 
the braces, part of the weight of the roof The weight suspended by the king-post 
will be proportional to the span of the roof; therefore, to find the scantling: — 

EuLE. Multiply the length of the post in feet, by the span in feet. Then 
multiply this product by the decimal 0'12 for pine or by 0-13 for oak, which will give 
the area of section of the king-post in inches; and this ai'ea, divided by the breadth, 
will give the thickness; or by the thickness, will give the breadth. 

Queen-posts. Queen-posts and suspending-pieces are strained in a similar manner 
to Idng-posts, but the load upon them is only proportional to that part of the length 
of the tie-beam suspended by each suspending-piece or queen-post. In queen-posts, 
the part suspended by each is generally half the span. 

EuLE. Multiply the length, in feet, of the queen-post or suspending-piece, by 
that part of the length of the tie-beam it supports, also in feet. This product, mul- 
tiplied by the decimal 0'27 for pine or by 0-32 for oak, will give the area of the section 
of the first in inches; and this area, divided by the thickness, will give the breadth. 

Tie-beams. A tie-beam is affected by two strains: the one in the direction of 
the length, from the thrust of the principal-rafters ; the other is a cross strain, from 
the weight of the ceiling. In estimating the strength, the thrust of the rafters need 
not be considered. The pressure of the weight supported by the tie-beams will be 
proportional to the length of the longest part of it that is unsupported. 

To find the scantling of a tie-beam that has only to support a ceiling, the length 
of the longest unsupported part being given: — 

EuLE. Divide the length of the longest unsupported part by the cube root of 
the breadth, and the quotient, multiplied by 1-47, will be the depth required for pine 
in inches; or multiplied by 1-52, will give the depth for oak, in inches. 

Principal-rafters. In estimating the strength of principal-rafters, we may suppose 
them supported by struts, either at or very near all the points where the purlins 
rest. The pressure on a principal-rafter is in the direction of its length, and is in 
proportion to the magnitude of the roof; but the effect of this pressure does not bear 
the same proportion to the weight when there is a king-post, as when there are queen- 
posts; therefore the same constant number will not answer for both cases. 

Case 1. To find the scantling of the principal-rafter, when there is a king-post 
in the middle: — 

EuLE. Multiply the square of the length of the rafter in feet, by the span in 



PLATE XII. 



On Fig. 1 v,-e exhibit in isometrical perspective a portion of the roof shown in Plate XI. 
It is represented as prepared f>r the reception of the jack -rafters. In the present instance, the 
principal-rafters are intended to be notched to a depth of 1 inch on the sides, to receive the pur- 
lins, which will be notched to 6 inches of their depth downward on the raftens, leaving a thickness 
of 4 inches on the upper side. The distance at which the purlins should be placed from each 
other, between centres, depends entirely upon the size of the timbers intended for common-rafters; 
for 3 ,-, 4 inch scantling it should not exceed 7 feet. The ribs necessary to form the curved 
ceiling may be made of plank, cut to the required line of curvature. These should be secured 
by 3 X 4 inch cross-scantlings, placed not more than 2 feet apart. These again should bo cross- 
cleated with 1X3 inch strips, following the line of curve, at a distance of about IG inches between 
centres; to these the plastering laths can be naileil, and tlius those unseemly cracks in the plas- 
tering, which so frequently occur, owing to the shrinkage of the timbers, may be avoided. 



DIMENSIONS OF THE TIMBERS. 

Principal-rafters 8 14 inches, j Purlins 4X10 inches 

Tie-rafters 8 •: 14 " j Common-rafters 3 , ■ 4 

Collar-beams 5 X 12 " , Fvidgc-polc 3X8 

{■'■'•) 



PRINCIPLES AND CONSTRUCTION OF ROOFS. 37 

feet, and divide the product by the cube of the thickness in inches. For pine, mul- 
tiply the quotient by 0'96, which will give the depth in inches. 

Case 2. To find the scantling of the rafter, when there are two queen-posts, 
use the same rule as in Case 1, multiplying the quotient by 0-155, instead of 0-96. 

Strainin(/-heams. A straining-beam is a horizontal piece between the heads of the 
queen-posts. That this beam may be the strongest possible, its depth should be to 
its thickness as 10 is to 7. 

Rule. Multiply the square root of the span in feet, by the length of the beam 
in feet, and extract the square root of the product. Multiply the root by 0-9 for 
pine, which will give the depth in inches. To find the thickness, multiply the depth 
by the decimal 0-7. 

Struts and Braces. That part of a roof that is supported by a strut is easily 
ascertained from the design; but the efiect of a load must depend on the position of 
a brace; Avhen it is square from the back of the rafter, the strain upon it will be 
least; and when it has the same inclination on the roof, the same strain will be 
thrown on the lower part of the principal-rafter as is bonie by the strut. 

Rule. Multiply the square root of the length supported in feet, by the length 
of the brace or strut in feet, and the square root of the product multiplied by 0-8 
for pine will give the depth in inches; and the depth multiplied by 06, will give 
the breadth in inches. 

Purlins. The stress upon purlins is proportionable to the distance they are apart, 
and the weight being uniformly diffused, the stiffness is reciprocally as the cube of the 
length. 

Rule. Multiply the cube of the length of the purlin in feet, by the distance 
the purlins are set apart in feet, and the fourth root of the product for pine will give 
the depth in inches; or multiplied by 1-04, will give the depth for oak; and the 
depth, multiplied by the decimal 0-0, will give the breadth. 

Commoiv-r afters. Common-rafters are uniformly loaded, and the breadth need not 
be more than from 2 J inches to 3 inches. The usual depth for slate may be found 
by the following rule: — 

Rule. Divide the length of the bearing in feet by the cube root of the breadth 
in inches, and the quotient, multiplied by 0-72 for ijine or 0-74 for oak, will give the 
depth in inches. 



PLATE XIII. 

Fig. 1 is an example of a roof with collar-beam rafters and tension-rods, adapted for a span 
of from 40 to .30 feet. The collar-beam, it will be seen, is locked into the under side of the 
principal-rafters, and secured by two bolts at each connection. The tension-rods are extended 
from the heel of the rafters to the apex, in a single bar, passing each through an iron shoe 
placed on the under side of collar-beam and secured by a nut at either end. Immediately over 
each of the shoes, near to the point where the bar intersects the collar-beam, is placed a strut or 
post extending to the principal-rafter, into which it is notched just under the purlin. The 
shoe at the foot of each rafter is secured by three bolts. The upper ends butt against a 
cast-iron head with a rule joint. As will be seen, by reference to the plate, this roof is 
intended for a curved ceiling. The curvature of the arc may be readily formed of 2 inch 
planks. The ribs thus formed may be cross-cleated with 2 >; 4 inch scantling, notched in so 
as to afford convenient nailing, and the whole may be still further secured by planting vertical 
cleating against the sides of tlie ribs and scantlings. The distance of the cross-scantling should 
not exceed IG inches between centres, so as to insure firm naihng to the plastering laths. Fig. 2 
shows in detail the mode in which the principal and common rafters butt against the cast-iron head 
at the apex; the manner in which the collar-beam is secured and bolted to the under side of the 
principal; and the form and position of the iron shoe and camber-rod. Fig. 3 represents the heels 
of common and principal rafters, showing the construction of the cornice by aid of the look-out 
joists; the manner in which the heel-piece is bolted to the principal; and also how the lower end 
of the camber-rod intersects the rafter and is secured. Fig. 4 shows the manner in which the 
collar-beam is connected with the lower side of the principal-rafter. 



Tie-beams T X 1-t inches, j Coinmon-rafUTs 3x 4 inches. 

C'olhir-buaras T ■ 14 " Look-out joists 3 ■ 10 " 

Purlins 4X10 " ! Ridge-pole 3X10 

(:is) 



TABLE OF 


SCAXTLIXGS. 


T X 1 4 inches. 


j Coniinon-rafters 


1 ■; 14 " 


Lodk-out joists 


4X10 " 


Ridge-pole . . 




ti. 



1 J "^ 


'«v^«*;'<;m«* 







V-OSsittiial sl^itt fh:. 



SPIRES, 



THEIR PROBABLE ORIGIN AHD PECULIARITIES OF STYLE. 



Having reviewed Domes and Koofs, briefly noticing their most remarkable features, 
and giving such historical information in regard to their origin and progress as might 
be deemed interesting, we shall now proceed to offer some observations on Spires, 
having reference more particularly to their probable origin, — a subject enveloped in 
much mystery, and which seems to be little understood; and those peculiarities of 
style which mark the difierent erections of this character, in the several periods of 
ecclesiastical architecture. 

It seems very unaccountable, that neither history nor tradition should have pre- 
served the least rememlDi-ance of tlie origin of spires. Their original builders, how- 
ever, must have had some special motive in thek erection, for we can hardly conceive 
that aj)pendages so expensive and difficult of execution should be merely the result of 
caprice. About the twelfth century the custom of burying in churches appears to 
have become general throughout Europe, consequently the same fabric was at once a 
cemetery and a church. The architects of the structures intended for this two-fold 
use, would naturally desire to engraft upon their style some characteristic denoting 
the double purpose for wliich these early churches were intended. What more pro- 
bable than that they should turn back for precedent to the nations of antiquity? 
The history and antiquities of these nations would at once inform them, that it was 
the invariable practice of all civilized communities who believed in the immortahty 
of the soul, to erect lofty pyramids over their cemeteries or places of sepulture. 
May not the Gothic architect in like manner have adopted the pyramidal form to 



PLATE XIV. 

Fig. 1. A rafter constructed upon the principle shown in this plate may be used -svith perfect 
safety in a span extending from 40 to 50 feet. In the present instance a tie-rafter, sustained 
and strengthened by bolts at the several connections, is substituted for the camber-rod used in 
Plate XIII. This example also difiers in other particulars from either of those intended for 
curved ceilings, which are given in the preceding plates. The timbers are to be halved and locked 
together at all the joints, excepting those at the heels and upper ends of the principal-rafters; the 
former are secured with bolts, shoes, etc., as shown; the latter butt against a cast-iron head, as in 
the instances previously referred to. The halvings are each one-fourth in depth, with the ends 
reversed. 

It ought here to be remarked, that all the timbers used in the construction of a roof on this 
principle should be thoroughly seasoned, as much depends upon the joints remaining perfect. If a 
roof of this description be executed with care, it will prove perfectly reliable, and may be applied 
with confidence to the greater of the spans above mentioned. The ceiling may be, in this case, 
constructed and prepared for the plaster in the manner mentioned in the example preceding. 

Fig. 2 represents, on a large scale, the heels of the principal and common rafters; the cornice 
as secured to the look-out joists; and the sheathing as prepared for the metal. Fig. 3 shows the 
junction of the tops of the principals with the cast-ii-on head; and Fig. 4 shows the crossings of 
the lower timbers. 

TABLE OF SCANTLINGS. 

Principal-rafters G ■ 14 inches. Purlins 4X10 inches. 

Tie-rafters >; 12 " Common-rafters 3 '-' 4 " 

Collar-beam 7X13 " Look-out joists 3;-. 10 " 

(40) 



SPIRES; THEIR ORIGIN AND STYLE. 41 

characterize tlic cemetery, at the same time that they preserved the iigiire of the 
cross ill their ground phins, the l^etter to denote the Christian temple? Hence, per- 
haps, the origin of spires, and the subsequent introduction of pinnacles, pointed arches, 
angular ornaments, etc. 

The probable reason here assigned for the origin of spires may be also similarly 
applied to those curious constructions, the round towers, still to be found in exist- 
ence near the ruins of some of the old churches in Ireland; for it may be remarked 
that at the time these towers were built the architects of that countr}- were imac- 
quainted with the art of raising a spire over the pillars at the intersecticn of the 
nave and transepts. They may have had recourse then to an easier but less sci- 
entific expedient, by constructing upon solid leases those round pyramids, the existing 
examples of which all terminate like the Egyptian obelisk. Notwithstanding the 
many learned conjectures which have Ijeen hazarded respecting the use of these 
pyramids, we think it may not unreasonably be concluded that they were simply 
intended to denote cemeteries. And their proximity to churches strengthens this 
supposition. 

It has also been remarked, "that spires owe their origin and use to the peculiar 
nature of the Christian worship, which invites all persons to join in its ceremonies 
and partake of its Ijenefits, dillering in this respect essentially from all previous reli- 
gious systems. From this arose the use of hells to notify the time of meeting, and 
also the appropriate buildings to contain them; which, in order to difl'use more widely 
the sounds, were elevated above the contiguous ordinary dwellings. These buildings 
were called Camimniles, and in the early Christian churches were often detached from 
the edifice and placed in a corner of the surrounding area. With the use of the 
Christian religion extended the use of such towers, which became necessary adjuncts 
to buildings erected for its service. In these, therefore, they have always formed 
conspicuous features, and are to Ije met with in almost every variety of form and 
situation consistent with their essential quality of loftiness. As the niedia:;val archi- 
tecture gradually improved in lightness and elegance, the steeples became more slender 
and lofty, and, to assimilate their outline more completely with the leading lines of 
the style, spires -were added, which, from the stability of the pyramidal form, could 
be carried to a greater height than would otherwise have been practicable. Hence 
originated the Christian steeple." 

Having discussed the probable origin of the spire, and the uses to which its 



iM.tr. 1 is ;m example als, 


' npplicaMe to a span 


of fro 


designed for a curved ceilini:. 


At the heel the princi; 


[lal-raft. 


at the centre of tlie collar-beai 


in liy butting against i 


ts fello 



PLATE XV. 

to 50 feet. This is likewise 
olted to a tie, which terminates 
ch proceeds from the ojiposite 
direction. Both of these are notched between the collar-beam, and a tension-bar passing through 
at the notch on either side, intersects the principal close to the head and is secured by a nut on 
the outer edge. It will be seen that in this example the collar-beam is halved, having its ends 
locked into the prineiiial, and being fiuiher .'^eeured by bolts at the connection. The upjier ends 
of the principal-rafters butt to a cast-iron head, and the heels require shoes, w-liich have their bear- 
ing on the wall-plates. At the points wdicre the collar-beam is intersected by the tension-bars, 
])Osts or struts are inserted, which extend to the under side of the upper purlin. These are 
intended to equalize the camber produced in the principals by the tightening of the tension-bars. 
The manner in Avhieh the curve of the ceiling is formed may readily bo seen by reference to 
Plates XIII. and XI Y. Fig. 2 shows the connection of the rafters with the cast-iron head. Fig. 3 
explains the mode of halving ties with collar-beam. Fig. 4 shows the heels of the principal and 
common rafters ; the lower purlin, and the formation of the cornice. Figs. 5 and G show the notchings 
where the tics cross the collar-beam. Fig. 7 is a section of the tie showing the notchings where 
the coll;u--beam crosses. Fig. 8 is a section showing the notchings on the principal-rafter for the 
end of the collar-beam. Figs. 9 and 10 show the notchings at tlie ends of tlie collar-beam, 
where thiy arc intended to be joined into the principal-rafters. 

DIMENSIONS OF THE TIMBERS. 

I'rincipal-rafters 7 II inches. rurliiis 4 10 inches. 

Ties 7 14 " Connaon-rafters ;J 4 

t'oUar-beams (i,\12 " Kidge-piccc 3 . 10 

(42) 



SPIRES; THEIll OllKMN AND STYLE. 43 

earlier prototypes may have possibly been dedicated, wc will now proceed more fully 
to define the term spire, as more particularly applied in pointed architecture, taking 
occasion to notice the peculiarities of the diflt'erent styles, and concluding -with a few 
short practical remarks. 

A Spire is an acutely pointed termination or covering, most usually found on 
towers of churches, or turrets. Spires are constructed either of stone or wood, the 
latter description being generally covered with lead, slate, or shingles. They are 
usually carried to a great height, and terminated at the apex with a linial, metal 
cross, or vane. It is doubtful whether any very decided approach toward spire 
building was made in English ecclesiastical architecture for a consideraljle time after 
the Norman conquest. In the earliest examples they are usually of the same plan 
as the tower, either square, circular, or octagonal, and are of very great height. 
Thus, in some of the early churches of Britain and Normandy, circular turrets ter- 
minate in circular spires; in another an octagonal turret has an octagonal spire; while 
in others square towers are surmounted by square spires or pyramids. These were 
commonly of very low proportions compared with later structures, and in truth were 
little more than j^yramidal roofs; the whole of the remaining specimens of this date 
are of stone, and rise from the outer surface of the walls, so as to leave no parapet 
or gutter around the base. These high pyramidal roofs were clearly the harbinger 
of spires, and liave therefore that term generally applied to them, though scarcely 
deserving of the name. 

As the early English style arose, a considerably greater elevation was given to 
spires, although they were still very frequently less acute than they afterwards became. 
With the exception of a few rare examples, the spires of this period were always 
octagonal, and when placed on square towers the angles of the tower not covered by 
the base of the spire were occupieil hy pinnacles, or by semi-pyramidal masses of 
masonry sloping back against the spire. Tlie outline was generally broken by one 
or more tiers of small open windows, termed spire lights, the faces of which were 
vertical, and therefore projected out at the top from the sloping sides of the tower. 
These were usually covered with gablets or sharp pediments, and were sometimes 
placed on the alternate foces of the spire in alternate tiers. Ivirly English spires were 
usually what are termed hroacli spins; that is to say, they w^ere usually made to spring 
directly from the exterior of tlie tower walls without the intervention of a parapet, 
whereas in the later styles gutters and parapets around the bases were seldom omitted. 



PLATE XVI. 



DESIGN I. 

Fi.i,'. 3 is :i i)viricip:il-rufter, desigiicl to span an extent of from 50 to 40 feet. Fig. 1 shows 
fnniiiii: "I' tlic 1. races iiiK.iL tlie tir-1, earns. Fig. 1^ slmws the ( nds cf tlie rafters at tlieir con- 
i.m with the iion hoa,L Figs. 4 and [> sliow a slight ehange in the nioJe of construction, 
■rliv the trnnns n,-eil in tlie rafters on Figs. 1 ami 2 are ilispcnsed with. Fig. (J explains the 
ner in wliich the heel is coiineeteJ with the tie-beam, and the construction of the "-utter. 



TA13LE OF SCANTLIN(i.S. 

Tie-beam OX 12 inches. I Prineipal-raftcr G>< 12 inches. 

I'arliiis 4X 8 " ! Braces 4X0 

( 'ommon-rafters 3X4 " | Look-out joists 3X8 " 



DESIGN II. 

Fig. il is a description of roof applicable for a span of from .'>0 to tJO feet. In this example 
the joints arc sijuare, and butt together in connectiun with an iron plate at the apex, and in a 
manner almost similar at the foot of the Ijraces. Tlie tie-beam is sustained by three bdlts, the 
central one serving as a king-post. When the span is of the widest advisable extent, the centre- 
bolt shouhl be 1|, and those on either side 1} inches in diameter. The tie-beam should have from 
2^ to 3 inches of camber when tightened up. The mode of construction employed in this i-oof is 
very simple, and well adapted for eitlier of the given spans. It is also perfectly reliable, and will 
sustain itself with'ait ilanger of delleetion, provided the timbers are thoroughly seasoned. Fig. 10 
explains the conne<'tiou at the apex, showing the centre-bolt; a section of the ridge-pole; and the 
ennnnon-rafter with the sheathing. Fig. 11 is a section of the tie-beam, showing the centre-liolt, 
and the iron shoe over wliich the braces butt. Fig. 12 shows the lieel of the rafter, and its eon- 



DI.MEXSIONS OF TLAIBKIIS. 

Tie-beam 8X14 inches. , rrineipal-rafter 8 ;• 14 inches 

Braces OX " j Purlins 4-10 

< 'ummoii-raflers :i X .') " , Tjook-out joists Ij ■. !l " 



SPIRES; THEIR ORIGIN AND STYLE. 45 

During the prevalence of the Decorated style, spires were almost always very 
acute ; they generally had gutters or parapets, though broach spires of this date arc 
by no means nncommon. They did not diflter materially from the early spires except 
in the character of the details and the amount of enrichments, which now began to 
be introduced in profusion ; crockets were often carved at the angles, and small l^auds 
of panelling or other ornaments formed around them at different heights ; the open- 
ings were also often enriched with crockets, finials, and pinnacles ; the angular pin- 
nacles were also enlarged, and not unfrequently connected with the spire by small 
Hying buttresses. Many fine examples of this style and date remain in England and 
Normandy. In the latter country they are generally ornamented externally with 
shallow Vandykes, little arches, or other similar patterns cut on the surface ; these 
are sometimes arranged in bands, and sometimes spread over the whole spire. They 
are also frequently pierced with a number of small openings. 

In the Perpendicular style the same general arrangement was continued, although 
the character of the details and enrichments was altered in common with the other 
features of Gothic architecture. At tliis period broach spires seem to have been 
abandoned. 

In the Flamboyant style of the continent of Europe, spires somewhat partook of 
the same redundancy of ornament as the rest of the buildings. There are many rich 
examples of this date of beautiful design still in existence. 

Before concluding this part of our subject we may instance a few of the more 
remarkable of these constructions. 

The spire of old St. Paul's is one of the earliest of which we have any account. 
It was finished in the year 1222, and was in height -334 feet, being 39 feet higher 
than the Great Pyramid. 

That of Strasburgh, built by the famous Irwin de Steinbach, is 474 feet high. 
It is noticeable for its curious construction, being formed so entirely of open work as 
to resemble a pile of scaffolding. 

Some spires, instead of having the sides straight, are formed with an entasis or 
swelling outwards, as at Caythorp, Lincolnshire, Northamptonshire, and some other 
places ; this kind of construction is found in the Decorated and Perpendicular styles. 

No settled proportion seems to have been observed in the dimensions of spires 
in general. Sometimes the height did not exceed four times the diameter of the 
base, while at other times the ratio of the height to the breadth taken at the base 



PLATE XVII. 

Fi,L'. 1 is a design for an open timlicr roof in tlic Gothic style, suited to a span extending 
from GO to 70 feet. Tliis form of roof is possessed of striking and beautifid features. It is in 
strict accordance ^vitll tlie spirit of medi;e\-al architcctnre, and may be very advantageously and 
judiciously introduced in any considerable structure Aviiieh partakes of tliis character. In this 
example the rafters are notched together, except at the apex, where they butt against an iron-head, 
througli -which passes an iron rod which serves as a king-post. The purlins have their bearings 
over the connections by which the truss is formed. One half of the elevation of the rafter shows 
the framing, displaying the several connections of the timljcrs at the heel, and with the hammer- 
beam, side-post, pendent-post, and curved brace. The corresponding half of the elevation shows 
the complete finish of the roof, with its mouldings, tracery, spandrels, etc. The line of the plas- 
tering for ceiling is seen on the upper side of the moulded rib. Figs. 2 and 3 arc portions of 
the preceding, drawn to a larger scale, so as to be rendered more perspicuous. Figs. 4 and .5 
are sections of tlie moulded rib. 



TABLE OF DIMENSIONS OF THE TIMBERS IN A SI'AN OF SIXTY FEET. 



Principal-rafters 9 \ 14 inches. 

Tie-rafter 'J U 

Ilamraer-beam 9 14 " 

Collar-beams, (ea.li doiil.le) . . :< ]-2 



Side-posts, (each double) . . . .5 \ 12 inches 

Pendent-posts, (single) .... 9 \ 1) " 

I'urJiiis 4 ■ 10 " 

Coiiuaon-rarters 3 5 



SriRES; THEIR ORIGIN AND STYLE. 47 

W.1S as eight to one. We have an example of the last -mentioned proportion in the 
spire built by Hugh Sibergin upon the towers of St. Nicase, the two largest of which 
were 50 feet high upon a base of 6 feet. 

Notwithstanding the amazing height to which many spires were carried, they were 
constructed so exceedingly slight that we should be apt to conclude — reasoning from 
theorj- — that they would be inadequate to sustain their own weight. That of Salis- 
bury^ for instance, is but seven inches thick, and that of Batalha is of no greater 
thickness, taken independent of the embossed work, with which almost a fourth of 
its superficies is perforated. Great care must consequently have been taken in select- 
ing the materials of which such slight fabrics were constructed, especially as they arc 
generally supposed to be connected without the aid of iron cramps, for this metal, 
when exposed to air or moisture, is liable to contract rust, which, in time, will shiver 
in pieces that portion of the block with Avhich it comes in immediate contact. It 
is said that the stones of the spire of Batalha are Iceyed together by means of dove- 
tail wedges of pine wood. It is pretty certain that the ancients on similar occasions 
adopted this expedient. Wedges, or cramps of wood, have been found in ancient 
Roman buildings, and in several instances among the ruins of old temples in Athens 
and Sicily. Cram2)s of copper were also used by the ancients in their buildings, 
which were tempered to an exceeding hardness. 

There are many fine spires in Normandy, of Avhich a considerable number appear 
to belong to the period of transition from the early French to the Decorated style, of 
which those at Ifs-les-Alcmagne, near Caen, and Bretteville I'Orqueilleuse, between 
Caen and Bayeux, arc good examples. Beautiful examples of the Flamboyant exist 
at Chartres Cathedral, the Church of St. Jean, Soissons, etc. ; there are others of 
plainer character at Ilarlleur and Lillebonne, in Normandy. The latter of these 
rises from an octagonal lantern on the top of the tower, an arrangement which is not 
unusual on the continent ; the lantern almost always consists of open work. 

The foregoing olxservations refer to spires of stone ; Init spires were often made of 
timber and covered cither with lead or shingles. Many specimens of these old timber 
spires, covered with shingles, are still to be met with in England; a curious example 
of one covered, with lead remains at Chesterfield, Derbyshire, in which the lead is so 
disposed as to give the appearance of the spire being twisted; most of these spires 
are so devoid of architectural features as to aftbrd no clue to their date ; some of 
them may be decorated, Ijut the majority are probably perpendicular. 



PLATE XVm. 

Fi,^'. 1 is ail ex;niiple of a roof formcl with a king-post, braces, ;ni<l slik'-b.jlts. The tie- 
beam is sustained to the king-post l)y an iron stirrup, and tlie heads of tlic rafters are secured in 
a siinihir manner at the apex. Both of tliese are fastened with jibs and keys. The ends of the 
rafters and In-accs butt against the king-post Avith curved joints. This rafter may readily be 
adapted, and with perfect safety, to a span of oO feet. AVIien king or queen posts are used they 
shoukl be formed of hard wood. For this purpose oak is preferable, as it is more capable of 
resisting the pressure at the connections than the softer material commonly employed for the 
rafters and tie-beams. Fig. 2 shows the heads of the king-post and rafters, drawn to a large 
scale. Fig. 3 shows the connection of the brace with the principal-rafter. Fig. 4 displays por- 
tions of the tic-beam and king-post; shows the mode of their connection by means of the stirrup; 
and the fnoting of the braces. Fig. 5 shows a portion of the tie-beam ; the heel of the rafter ; 
the lower pnrlin ; the mode of forming the gutter ; and the common-rafter, with tlie sheathing, etc. 

TABLE or SCANTLIXGS. 

Tie-beam t :< 12 inches, i Ridge-piece 3 :\ 10 inches. 

Pruicipal-rafter T X 12 " Common-rafters 3X 5 " 

King-post 7X16 " | Look-out joists 3~<10 

Braces GX C " Wall-plate 4X12 " 

I'urlins 4X 9 " 

(t.S) 





:Rosan.iaialiLita> livaa 



SPIRES; THEIR ORIGIN AND STYLE. 49 

On the continent there are some timbei- spires, apparently of Fhimboyant con- 
struction, considerably ornamented, with portions formed of open work entirely cased 
in lead ; small light spires of similar character are also to be seen frequently, rising 
from the roofs of churches, especially over the cast end of the choir. There are 
also numerous plain spires in Normandy and Flanders, many of which are covered 
with small slates, probably modern substitutes for lead or shingles. 

Having noticed the peculiar form and characteristics of spires, during the preva- 
lence of the Gothic styles, we will briefly refer to those of later construction. 

It is apparent, as before remarked, that this species of composition owes its origin 
and use to the Christian worship. When, therefore, during the seventeenth century, 
influenced principally by the compositions of Inigo Jones and Sir Christopher Wren, 
a great change was eflccted in the ecclesiastical architecture of England, this form 
was not discarded. The steeples which then came into use were in imitation of the 
early spires. Of the many classic structures with which the taste and genius of 
Wren embellished London, the majority have steeples. Some of these are constructed 
wholly or in part of wood. Of the form, however, used by the mediaeval architects, 
nothing but the general idea is preserved. For the slender and acutelj' pointed 
spires with which they terminated their towers, compartments are substituted, in 
which the classic orders form a conspicuous feature ; and the superstructure is generally 
finished in receding gradations, each, at least the lower of these, being composed of 
columns and a regular entablature. Urns, pyramidal, and other ornaments are also 
employed, and the apex generally terminates in a small and slender adaptation of the 
spire. In some instances difleront orders are employed in the several stories of the 
same steeple. 

A few concluding remarks may now be made in regard more particularly to spire 
construction among ourselves. 

Our lai'ge and rapidly increasing population, and the consequent necessity which 
exists for enlarged church accommodation, make this a matter of much importance to 
all. While churches are urgently required in our large towns and teeming cities, 
they are scarcely less needed in small villages and sparsely populated districts. The 
church — no less than the school-house — is the inseparable accompaniment of American 
progress. Economy in their erection is generally desirable, and in many instances 
indispensable. Thus, those immediately interested in these constructions are often 
compelled, contrary to their own immediate wishes and preferences, to dispense with 

G 



PLATE XIX. 

Fi,ir. 1 is a roof constructed with fjuccn-posts, to wliicli tlie tie-beam is sustained by moans of 
iron stirrups, fastened with jibs and keys, as in the preceding example on Plate XVIII. It 
may be applied to a CO or (J5 feet span. In the larger span the camber-beam should be sus- 
tained to the small king-post by a joint-bolt, as shown on the plate. AVhere, as in this instance, 
the (jueen-posts are notched into the tie-beam to resist the thrust of the braces, the straining- 
piece is omitted. In a span of this extent the camber of the tie-beam should be 3J inches. Fig. 2 
shows the head of the small king-post over the camber-beam. Fig. 3 shows the head of the side- 
bolt, and the connection of the brace with the principal-rafter. Fig. 4 describes the connection 
between the head of the queen-pust, the camber-beam, and the rafters, showing the position of 
the bolt, the section of the purlin, and a portion of the sheathing. Fig. 5 shows the notch at 
the bottom of the queen-post ; the foot of the brace ; and the iron stirrup which sustains the tic- 
beam. Fig. G is explanatory of the several connections at the heels of the rafters with the tie- 
beam, look-out joists, gutter, etc. 

TABLE OP SCANTLINGS. 



Tie-beam I) >; IG inches. I Upper truss-rafters 

Principal-rafter !) X 14 " j Purlius .... 

Camber-beam 9;<14 " 1 Common-rafters . 

Queen-post 9 '.< IC " ' Look-out joists . 

Braces (1 "\' 7 " > Raising-plate . 

King-post, over camljer-beam . G ■' 8 



X 8 indies 
4-10 " 
3X 5 
3X10 " 
4X fi " 



(ooj 



SPIRES; T II E I E ORIGIN AND STYLE. 51 

the spire, solely on account of the increased outlay which its erection would involve. 
Heavy and costly spires of stone, similar to those of the mediseval times, ai'e there- 
fore in most cases too expensive, and in many altogether inapplicable. With us, 
timber is almost always a suitalile and desirable material. It is cheap, light, and 
abundant. Spires of wood can be erected on comparatively slight foundations; in 
ordinary cases their framing is of easy construction, and they are capable of being 
carried to a great altitude at a moderate expense. They are also susceptible of easy 
adaptation to any style, and can be formed as much in keeping with the character 
of the simple and unpretending village fane, as that of the more costly and magnifi- 
cent temple of the great city. Of late years, many spires of this description have 
been erected in our cities, and throughout the country generally. Some of these are 
of beautiful proportion and amazing height. There can be no more pleasing feature 
in a landscape. And whether it "points its airy finger toward heaven" from amid 
the trees, which m sylvan districts cluster around the humble sanctuary and embower 
the homes of rustic worshippers, or rises in towering magnificence far above the roofs 
and domes of the populous and busy city, the spire is always a beautiful and appro- 
priate appendage to the house of God. 



PLATE XX. 

We licrc give six designs for truss-beams, all ilrawn to a uniform scale of 8 feet to the iiieli. 

Fig. 1 is suitable for a span of 75 feet. The tie and straining beams are of douljle thick- 
ness ; each thickness of the tie-beam is 6 X IG inches ; those of the straining-piece are G ■ 14 
inches each. All of the truss-pieces are single and of hard wood ; they are 7X7 inches. The 
several thicknesses of which the straining-piece and tie-beam are composed, are bolted together, 
pieces of hard wood luiiig nijti/hed in the space between each bolt. The vertical bolts are placed 
at equal distances apart, ami when tightened up should produce a camber of 3J inches. 

Fig. 2 is intended for a span of GO feet. In this example we have employed the camber- 
rod, in addition to the struts. The rods are tightened by means of keys. The timbers in this 
truss are much lighter than those in the design preceding. The tie-beams are 5 ■' 14 inches in 
each thickness ; the pieces for the straining-sill are 5 X 12 inches each ; and the several struts are 
G X 6 inches, formed of oak or other hard wood. The camber in this span should be 3 inches. 

Fig. 3 is an example of a single thickness, adapted for a span of 50 feet. The tie-beam is 
7 X 14 inches thick, the camber-beam 7 X 12 inches, the struts 6XG inches ; and the camber 
produced should not be less than 21 inches. 

Fig. 4 is an example intended for a still shorter span. It may, however, be easily constructed 
for a span equal to that mentioned in the preceding figure, by increasing the thickness of the tim- 
bers and the heights of the trusses. For a span of 40 feet — the distance contemplated in the 
present figure — the timbers will be as follow : Tie-beam, which is double, 5 ":■'■■ 12 inches, each 
thickness ; camber-beams, 5 • 10 inches each ; struts, 5 ■ 8 inches, of oak, notched into the 
beams 1 inch, and butting with rule-joints against iron heads and shoes. Camber, 2 inches. 

Fig. 5 is a single truss, composed of two thicknesses, between which is inserted another of 
iron ; and is intended fir a span of 35 feet ; each of the thicknesses is G X 16 inches. Camber, 
If inches. 

Fig. 6 is intended to be constructed on the same jn-inciple as the truss shown on Fig. 4 ; and 
may be applied to a span of 30 feet. The tie-beams are each 4 X 12 inches ; the camber-beams, 
4 X 10 inches ; an<l the struts 4 ■ G inches, notched into the timbers 1 inch each way, and made 
of hard wood. Camber, Ih inches. 



i! 

1 



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SPIRES; THEIR ORIGIN AND STYLE. 53 



TABLE OF ALTITUDES OF CELEBRATED STIRES. 



Tower. 

Old St. Paul's 260 

Salisbury 207 

Norwich 140 

Lichfield 114 

Chichester 

St. Mary's, Oxford 86 

Louth 148 

Bloxham 101 

St. Michael's, Coventry 136 

Cologne, (as designed) 330 

Strasburg ......... 364 

St. Stephen's, Vienna 285 

Ulm, (as designed) 320 

Freyburg 221 

Marburg 184 

Antwerp _ . 184 

Bayeux 142 

St. Stephen's, Caen 155 

St. Peter's, " 134 

Batalha 113 

Glasgow ... 115 



Spire. 
2t4 


Total Height. 
534 


197 


404 


163 


303 


138 


252 





270 


94 


180 


140 


288 


94 


195 


164 


300 


200 


530 


110 


474 


180 


465 


in 


491 


159 


380 


88 


272 


88 


366 


104 


246 


107 


262 


110 


244 


57 


170 


105 


220 



PLATE XXI. 

\Vc close this department of our work by appending to the various examples of roofs con- 
taiiu'il in the preceding plates the accompanying plan and elevation of a spire of considerable 
altitude, recently erected by the author in the northern portion of Philadelphia, and "which has 
attracted a considerable degree of attention. Being of wood, this or a similar construction is 
capable of being easily adapted to almost any locality, and can be erected at a comparatively mode- 
rate expense. It will be seen by reference to the pdate that one-half of the elevation displays the 
framing and mode of construction, while on the other is exhibited the finished exterior. The 
base is supported on sills, whose bearings rest partly on the solid masonry and partly upon piers 
built specially to receive them. These, where they cross, are locked into each other and securely 
bolted together. The eight principal posts which form the angles are morticed into the sills, 
whence they extend vertically to receive and support those which form the spii-e. All these pieces 
are locked where they connect, and firmly secured by bolts. The position of the cross-ties and 
braces will be easily comprehended by reference to the plan, on which they are accurately and 
perspicuously described. All the different timbers and their connections are minutely drawn, and 
with such care as to render further description unnecessary. 

TABLE OF THE SEVERAL SCAXTLIXGS. 



Tie-beam, (of princ-ipal-rafter) . 10 ■ IT, : 

Principal-rafter 10 • l(i 

Camber-beam lO- IG 

Braces to do 8 :■ 8 

Principal-posts to sjjire ... G X 8 
Long braces to do G X 8 



Bottom-sills . . . 




10 - 


IG inches 


Ties or Girts . . . 




5 


AO ■■ 


Braces within Sections 




4> 


8 " 


Spire-posts, (at foot 6:- 


G,) at top 


4> 


i 


Ties to do . . . . 




4> 
4- 


G " 


Braces 




: G 



PLATE XXI. 

AVe c-lu.se this department of our work by appending to the various examples of roofs con- 
tained in the preceding plates the accompanying plan and elevation of a spire of considerable 
altitude, recently erected by the author in the nortliern portion of Philadelpliia, and which lias 
attracted a considerable degree of attention. Being of wood, this or a similar construction is 
capable of being easily adapted to almost any locality, and can be erected at a comparatively mode- 
rate expense. It will be seen by reference to the plate that one-half of the elevation displays the 
framing and mode of construction, while on the other is exhibited the finished exterior. The 
base is supported on sills, whose bearings rest partly on the solid masonry and partly upon piers 
built specially to receive them. These, where they cross, arc locked into each other and securely 
bolted together. The eight principal posts which form the angles are morticed into the sills, 
whence they extend vertically to receive and support those which form the spire. All these pieces 
are locked where they connect, and firmly secured by bolts. The position of the cross-ties and 
braces will be easily comprehended by reference to the plan, on which they are accurately and 
perspicuously described. All the different timbers and their connections arc minutely drawn, and 
with such care as to render further description unnecessary. 

TABLE OF THE SEVERAL SCANTLINGS. 



Tie-beam, (of priiiripal-rarter) . 10 • 10 inches. 

I'rincipal-rafler 10 ■ 10 " 

Camber-beam lOXlG " 

Braces to do 8 >; 8 " 

Principal-posts to spire ... C X 8 " 
Ijoug braces to do 0X8 " 



Bottom-sills 10-10 

Ties or Girts .5 \ 10 

Braces within Sections ... 4X8 

Spire-posts, (at foot 6 :< 0,) at top 4X4 

Ties to do 4X0 

Braces 4X0 



{:,-!, 




r^^ 



»:-^ 




CARPENTEY AND JOINEEY. 



The term Carpentry is generally applied to the art of employing timl^ers in the 
construction of buildings. 

This art is of such general and important use that there can be no douljt of its 
being of the highest antiquity; little of its history, however, has been transmitted to 
us from the ancients. Pliny and Vitruvius are almost the only authors whose writ- 
ings on the subject have reached modern times; but as their observations are merely 
confined to the choice and felling of timber, they are of no use as to the constructive 
part, and only demonstrate that such an art existed. 

The practice of carpentry in its rudest form must of necessity have commenced 
in the very earliest ages; for in the first attempts at the construction of the primitive 
buildmgs of those days carpentry must have been brought into exercise. It is pro- 
bable that the necessity of introducing the pediment roof occasioned the first use of 
timber frames, and consequently the art of carpentry in building. The invention of 
the pediment roof is justly attributed to the Greeks, as the oldest buildings of this 
description are to be found in their country; they also appear to have used timber 
for other purposes, as in the framing of floors, and the construction of rustic buildings. 

Li warm countries fui'uishing stone or marble, it is probable that the use of timber 
was not very frequent, and that it was confined to movable articles where lightness 
was an essential quality ; we must, therefore, not look to these climates for any traces 
of the art. 

The next great people in succession of time to the Greeks, were the Eomans, 
who seem to have employed timber for all, or nearly all, the purposes that the moderns 
are acquainted with. They not only constructed their roofs, but whole buildings of 
timber ; in Vitruvius we have a description of their manner of constructing the archi- 

(5i) 



PLATE XXII. 

Oil this plate are given a variety of designs for framing, bridging, and trussing joists. Fig. 1 
represents a girder; 2 is the method of splicing the same; 3 is a section of tLe binding-joists; 4 a 
section of girder ; 5. 5. tlic binding-joists as framed into the girder ; 6. G. are the straps or iron 
Jiy which they are clamped together; T. 7. are the sections of the flooring-joists; 8. 8. these as 
notched into the binding-joists ; 9. 9. are sections of the ceiling-joists ; 10. 10. these as also notched 
to the binding-joists; 11. 11. 11. are tlic laths nailed on the sides of the binding-joists, over ivhich 
the ceiling-joists are notched; 12 is the counter-ceiling, formed of cross-boarding for the deafen- 
ing, and laid upon laths nailed to the sides of the flooring-joists 3 inches below the floor line ; and 
13 is an isometrical view of the construction of a floor formed of the several parts which have 
just been described. In this view the timbers are all shown. A is the girder; B the binding- 
joists; C the flooring-joists; E the counter-flooring; F the flooring; and G G the counter-lathing, 
each lath of which is 1 inch thick by 3 inches in width, and placed 10 inches apart from centres. 
Figs. 14 and 15 are two examples of bridging-joists, which are greatly preferable to the usual 
mode. The former is applicable for joists exceeding 12 inches in depth, and has two tension-rods 
of iron ; the latter has but one rod wliich passes through the centre. Fig. 10 shows the framing 
ot a triunuer. Fig. IT is a section of the main-trimmer, showing a portion of the cross-trimmer, 
with the tenon or key. Fig. 18 is a section of the cross-trimmer, which shows the framing into 
it of the tail-joists. Fig. 19 shows a method of connecting trimmers with stirrups, instead of 
being morticed like the foregoing; in this case they are first sufficiently notched to steady them, 
and then secured to each other with joint-bolts, as at Fig. 20, which represents a section of the 
niain-trimmer, and shows its connection with the cross one. The examples which follow, from 
Figs. 21 to 30, inclusive, are diff'erent forms of trussing-joists. On Fig. 21 the truss is formed by 
curved hiths, which may be cither secured to the sides of a single joist, as shown at section A, 
or placed between a double joist, as shown on the figure, and at B. Fig. 22 is trussed with a 
tension-rod or rods, which may be similarly applied to the centre or sides. Fig. 23, in connection 
with G, shows the former mode ; and Fig. 24, in connection with D, the latter. Fig. 25 is trussed 
with a lath in three sections. Fig. 20 is the plan. Fig. 27 is trussed with an oak lath in two 
sections, which butt together; of this Fig. 28 is the plan. Fig. 29 is an example, suited like 
the foregoing to a short span, in which the tension-rod forms the truss. Fig. 30 is the plan. 
Fig. 31 is a secure and reliable method of splicing girders ; and Fig. 32 is a method of inserting 
joists which deprives them of their leverage upon the walls, and thus to a considerable extent 
prevents their liability to be disintegrated or thrown out in case of fire or other possible mishaps. 

(OGJ 



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CARPENTRY AND JOINERY. 57 

traves of Tuscan temples, and of the foundations of arched ceiUngs and Uoors in 
timber work. The Romans also used wooden cornices. The theatres and amphi- 
theatres at Rome, and in different parts of Italy, were at first constructed of timlier. 

The roofs of the Roman buildings were not always concealed ; the timbers were 
sometimes exposed, and in magnificent buildings they were gilt, as in the basilica of 
St. Peter, erected by Constantine; sometimes they were incrusted with bronze. 

Though circumstances require certain dispositions of timbers in a building, the 
timbers will still admit of infinite decoration without injury ; and sometimes so much 
as at first view to conceal the principal use. In the middle ages carpentry partook 
of the style of building called Gothic; the roofs were pitched very high, height being 
one of the predominant features of this species of architecture. 

Of late years many improvements have been introduced into the various branches 
of carpentry, in regard to simplified and more scientific modes of construction; and 
the almost general use, at least in this country, of machinery for the purposes of 
sawing, planing, and mortising; and for the manufacture of doors, sashes, etc. In 
accuracy and celerity of execution our workmen are uncqualed. 

Latterly, the improvements in the manufacture of iron, both cy/.v/ and vrougld, 
have caused the introduction of that material into buildings, in every variety of form, 
as girders, beams, etc. The floors, and sometimes even the roofs of those intended 
to be secured from fire, have been constructed of iron. The use of this material, 
however, as a substitute for wood, does not change the principle, as both materials are 
aflfected by the same gravitating laAVS. 

This important and useful art, which is so intimately connected with the comforts 
and requirements of man in every stage of civilized society, may be divided into two 
grand branches, Carj/otfri/ and Joiner)/. The fii'st includes the larger and rougher 
kinds of work, or that which is essential to the construction and stability of an edifice; 
and generally all the work wherein timber is valued by the cubical foot. Joinery 
includes all the interior finishings and ornamental work, and is generally valued by 
the superficial foot. 

Caepentet itself is properly divided into three branches, viz.. Descriptive, Con- 
structive, and Mechanical. 

Descriptive Carpentry is the art of forming a diagram on a plane by the rules of 
geometry, in order to construct any piece of carpentry of a known property, from 
certain given dimensions of the thing to be constructed. This is a necessary qualifi- 



PLATE XXIII. 

On this plute is represontcil the manner of constructing a bay window. Fig. 1 is the ground 
jilan, forming in its outline the sides of a half octagon, and .so arranged as to allow of the inside 
shutters being folded within the boxes prepared for them in the side-jambs. Fig. 2 is the eleva- 
tion of half i)f the exterioi-. Fig. 3 shows similarly the elevation of the interior, with the extended 
shutter; and the moulded architrave which runs around the recess which forms the bay. Fig. 4 
is the vertical section. 

According to the method usually pursued in the construction of windows of this description, 
boxes are formed in each jamb to receive the inside shutters, which are folded one-half each way. 
This is a convenient arrangement when the window is of such considerable dimensions as to admit 
of the space necessary for the formation of the angle-boxes, without hurting the proportion of the 
jamb. Eut when the window is of an ordinary size, averaging from C to 9 feet in the width of 
the haj, the method which we here present, of folding the shutters within the side-boxes only, is 
preferable, as by adopting it the angle-jambs can be lightened considerably, the width of the glass 
increased, and a much better proportion given to the general appearance of the window. It is 
also worthy of remark, that by this method no more space is ret^uired iu the angle-jambs than is 
actually necessary for the formation of the boxes to contain the weights, and even these can be 
reduced to one in each angle by attaching a pulley to each weight, iu a way which will be found 
described in the succeeding plate, so that if the window be small the inside face, or rather edge of 
the jamb, may be reduced to the width of a single bead. In other instances the whole of the 
recess forming the bay is shut off from the area of the apartment by means of sliding doors. 
'When this method is adopted sash-fasteners only are used, shutters being unnecessary; the sliding 
doors, however, prevent egress to the apartments through the bay, more effectually, perhaps, than 
the ordinary inside shutters. The term orid is generally applied to a bay when it is elevated 
from the ground, and supported by a corbel, or moulded bracketings. 

The form of the bay prevents the use of outside shutters. Pivot blinds may be sometimes 
introduced with advantage, especially in southern houses. They are neat in appearance, and 
economical of space, and may ho readily attached to the window by making each blind in two 
divisions and hinging the upper of these to the side-jamb, and the lower one to it at tlie meeting- 
rails of the sash, so that it can be easily opened for cleaning when required. 

(58) 







i'/d'.^ 







CARPP]NTRY AND JOINERY. 59 

cation for those engaged in the work of construction, not only to enable them to 
anticipate the effect, but to judge of the propriety of the execution of any proposed 
work. 

Constructive Carpentry shows the method of reducing wood into forms, and joining 
the parts, as directed by the rules of Descriptive Carpentry, or by the laws of strength, 
and thereby forming a complete design. 

Every species of construction should be characterized by stability, and a careful 
regard to economy of materials. These objects can only be obtained by judicious 
combinations of the substances used, so that the greatest amount of strength be 
secured with the smallest expenditure of material. Unless the builder possess a con- 
siderable knowledge of the principles of mechanics; unless he be acquainted with 
the effect of pressure, and the resisting powers of different materials, he cannot com- 
prehend, much less design, such combinations ; but becomes a mere laborer, putting 
together the several parts of a work without knowing their relative dependence on 
each other, or the strength, or want of strength, of the whole. He is, indeed, from 
the want of such knowledge as we have described, incapable of judging what are 
the best fonns of construction, or which of several modes of uniting timbers is the 
best. It is the province of Constructive Carpentry to show this, and the carpenter 
who is desirous to make himself thoroughly acquainted with his business, should study 
to acquire not only a practical knowledge of its details, but also some insight into 
the principles on which it is founded. 

Mechanical Carpentry is that part of the art of construction in timber which 
treats of the proper disposition of framing, so as to enable it to resist its own weight, 
or any additional load or pressure that may be casually laid upon it. It is so called 
from the principles of mechanics being employed in the construction of truss-framing, 
or other parts of the art. The mechanical principles of a piece of carpentry are 
therefore first to be considered; because they must, in some measure, regulate the 
disposition and size of the timbers in the design after which they are to be prepared 
or formed, according to the rules of Constructive Carpentry. 

Having thus briefly referred to the general principles of carpentry, the introduc- 
tion of a few remarks on the absolute strength of timber, with some practical observations 
on wood, given with a view to assist in the proper choice of timber as a material, 
may be of great use to the practical carpenter. 



PLATE XXIV. 

AVe lierc show the cuiistruction of a twin-wiudow, in wliicli each divisiiin of tlic sasli on cither 
side of the inullion is hung to a single weight, running -within the centre box. "We thus dispense 
•with the broad jambs required for the reception of the double boxes, when the usual method is 
employed. According to the old plan, each sash is hung with a separate balance-weight ; in this 
simple arrangement, nothing more is necessary than to have the weight cast of double dimension, 
with a pulley in the end upon which the cord plays, instead of being attached to the end of the 
weight. Pig. 1 is a horizontal section showing the inside shutters in two positions, folded within 
the side-jamb, and extended so as to cover the sash; the manner of hanging the outside shutters 
is also described on this figure. Fig. 2 exhibits in elevation as much of the window and its finish- 
ing as is necessary to be shown. Fig. 3 is a vertical section explanatory of portions of the con- 
struction. "We may add, that in regulating the movement of the sash the weight will only rise or 
fall to one-half of the distance re(iuired for the sash ; and that this metliod may be employed with 
great advantage in cases where the bottom sash is required to ily up into the head, or in attic 
windows, as the pulley is thus placed in a position where it is easy of access, and immediately 
opposite that belonging to the upper sash. 

In these or similar cases, the end of the cord should be secured to a hook driven within the 
box opposite the stile-pulley. 

The letters placed on the figures in this plate will serve, by using them as references, to eluci- 
date the more important parts of the construction. The letters A A A, where placed on both 
sections, denote the walls; B B, similarly placed, denotes the top of outer window-sill on Fig. 1, 
and its section on Fig. 2 ; C C denotes the inside shutter in its folded and extended forms on 
Fig. 1 ; D D, on the same figure, denotes the outside shutter hinged to the frame ; E E E, placed 
on each of the three figures, denotes in different positions the upper sash, as hung within the frame ; 
F F F, similarly distributed, denotes in the same manner the lower sash ; I, where placed on the 
elevation, denotes the vertical section of the centre box, which shows two of the sash-weights and 
the parting-slips; and G G G denotes the moulded architrave, both in section and in elevation; 
II H H H II II, distributed on Figs. 1 and 2, denotes the sash-weights within their boxes, and the 
manner of attachintr them to the cord. 



CARPENTRY AND JOINERY. 



61 



OF THE ABSOLUTE STRENGTH OF TIMBER. 

The strain occasioned by pulling timber in the direction of its length is called 
tension; it frequently occurs in roofs, and is therefore worthy of consideration. 

The absolute strength of a fibre, or small thread of timber, is the force by which 
every part of it is held together, which is equal to the force that would be required 
to pull it asunder; and the force which would be required to tear any number of 
threads asunder is proportional to that of their sum; but the areas of the sections 
of two pieces of timber composed of fibres of the same kinds, are as the numljer of 
fibres in each ; and, therefore, the strength of the timber is as tlie area of the sections. 

Hence all prismatic bodies are equally strong; that is, they will not break in 
one part rather than in another. 

Bodies which have unequal sections will break at their smallest part ; and, there- 
fore, if the absolute strength which would be required to tear a square inch of each 
kind of timber be known, we shall Ijc able to determine the strength of any other 
quantity whatever. 

The following talale, taken from reliable experiments, shows the al.isolute strength 
of a square inch of various descriptions of timber : — 



Locust-tree 20'100 pounds. 

Beech-oak n-300 " 

Orange 15-500 " 

Alder 13-900 " 

E:im 13-200 " 



Mulberry 
Willow . 
Ash . . 
Plum . . 
Elder . . 



12-500 
12-500 
12-000 
11-800 
10 000 



Pomegranate 9-750 pounds. 

Lemon 2-950 

Tamarind 8T50 

Fir 8-330 " 

Walnut 8-130 

Pitch-pine 7-650 

Quince 6-750 

Cypress 6-000 " 

Poplar . . ■ 5-500 " 

Cedar 4-880 



PLATE XXV. 

Represents tlie method employed in the construction of a window with sliding shutters, which in this 
example are substituted for the ordinary covering. Fig. 1 is a plan of the entire construction. 
Fig. 2 is the elevation, showing on the interior one-half of the drawn shutter, and on the exterior 
the corresponding portion of the window. Fig. 3 is a vertical section, explanatory of the preceding 
figure. Fig. 4 is a plan of one side of the construction, which is rendered more distinct by the 
aid of an enlarged scale ; and Fig. 5 is its vertical section. Fig. 6 shows a portion of the inside 
elevation; and Fig. 7 is a section of the shutters and the centre-bar, taken at the division and 
drawn to the full size. 

This may, perhaps, be esteemed the most secure and reliable method of closing a window. It 
is necessary to make sliding shutters, or at least the outer frame-work, of two-inch plank, in order 
to aflbrd a thickness sufBcient to insure permanency to the sheaves, and strength and firmness to the 
bar, which forms the way for the upper division, as well as the guide for the lower. This may be 
discerned by a reference to Fig. 7, on which is also represented a plate of iron, let into the groove 
at each end to prevent the wearing of the wood. The flanges of the bar or w-ay are rounded, so 
as to form the centre-bead at the division of the shutters. The lower section will likewise require 
to have a way with the usual side-plate, set in flush and screwed fast to the sill. The centre-bar 
is usually made in three sections ; the middle of which crosses the window, and is secured to those 
within the side-grooves by means of a slip and lap, so that it can be taken off at pleasure. The 
flanges of the side-sections project beyond the shutters on either face, in order to give them a 
bearing in grooves, which are cut in the sides of the cavities which receive the shutters. If 
arranged in this manner the sections may be taken out separately, if necessary ; that in the centre 
should be of brass ; those at the sides of iron. Shutters of this description may be readily made 
of two thicknesses, (except tlic stiles and rails,) and ^jlates of sheet-iron inserted between the thick- 
nesses ; thus forming a perfect safeguard against the operations of burglars. 

(G2) 








-■*atlia.li,Lllli P"hi 



CARPENTRY AND JOINERY. 63 



PRACTICAL OBSERVATIONS ON WOOD. 

1. The wood immediately surrounding the pith, or heart, is the weakest; and 
its inferiority is so much the more remarkable as the tree is older. It is certain, 
from experiments on large oaks and pines, that the heart is much weaker than the 
exterior parts. 

2. The wood next to the bark, commonly called sap, or u-hiie, is also weaker 
than the rest; and the wood gradually increases in strength as we recede from the 
centre to the sap. 

3. The wood is stronger in the middle of the trunk than at the springing of the 
branches, or at the root ; and the wood of the branches is weaker than that of the trunk. 

4. The wood on the north side of trees is the weakest, and that on the south 
side the strongest ; and the difference is most remarkable in such as grow singly. 
The heart of a tree is never in its centre, but always nearer to the north side, and 
the annual coats of wood are thinner on that side. In conformity to this, it is a 
general opinion of carpenters that the timber is strongest whose annual plates are 
thickest. 

5. All woods are more tenacious while green, and lose very considerably by drying 
after the tree is felled. 

Joinery, the other grand division of general carpentry, is the art of framing or 
joining wood together for internal and external finishings of houses ; thus the cover- 
ings and linings of rough walls, or the coverings of rough timbers, and the construc- 
tion of doors, windows, and stairs, are joiners' work. 

Joinery requires much more accurate and nice workmanship than carpentry; the 
latter consists only of rough timbers, used in supporting the various parts of an edifice ; 
joinery is therefore used by way of decoration, and being always near to the eye and 
consequently liable to inspection, requires that the joints should be fitted together 
with the utmost care, and the surfaces made smooth. 

In no art or business has greater changes taken effect within the last few years 
than in this particular branch of mechanical employment. Appliances once thought 
the most perfect of their respective kinds have been superseded ; old terms have 
become obsolete; while modern invention has simplified labor and led to the intro- 



PLATE XXVI. 

Exhibits a method of constructing sliding doors, in which tlic sheaves and ways are placed at the 
top, thus leaving the floor entirely clear of obstructions, and obviating the necessity which exists for 
separating the carpets between the apartments, when the sheaves and ways are placed at the bottom 
as in the method usually employed. 

Fig. 1 is the ground plan of this construction, on which is described the connection with the 
partitions. The half marked A displays the crank and lever for shifting the bar at the top; and 
that marked B is the plan at the floor. Fig. 2 shows the elevation of the doors ; also at C a 
portion of the face of the wall, and on the opposite side, at I), the naked studding. E, where 
placed above the doors, denotes the truss-framing of the partition ; and F F the sheaves upon the bar 
as they appear when the doors are closed. The cavities formed within the partitions to receive 
the doors are boarded between the studs, as will be seen by reference to A and B. Fig. 3 is a 
vertical section of the elevation. Fig. 4 is a transverse section of the head, drawn to a large 
scale. Fig. 5 is a longitudinal section of the head, drawn to a similar scale, which shows on its 
under portion at C the crank and bar. Fig. 6 is a section showing the bar or way at I; the 
side-plate as secured to the door at II ; and the sheave at K. In connection with this figure we 
must again refer to Figs. 4 and 5, in order to make our description more intelligible. L, where 
shown on Fig. 5, is a section of Fig. (j ; and the M placed immediately beneath, denotes that of the 
door, as secured by the plate to which the sheave is attached. K, on this figure, denotes the 
sheave. By this arrangement, the movement of the cranks is regulated by the lever, until the way 
becomes central in the cavity, when the flange described at enters the groove, as shown at P 
on Fig. 4, and by the dotted line at R and G on Fig. 5. In this manner the way is held firm in 
its position by the flange opposite to the plate by which the door is suspended, which also aflbrds 
to it a bearing along its whole length. 

(G4) 



CARPKNTRY AND JOINERY. 65 

duction and employment of suitable machinery in departments formerly intrusted to 
the most expert and careful artizans. 

In many European countries old methods still prevail, in others the spirit of 
improvement in joinery is more or less discernible ; while with us its development has 
kept pace with the rapid strides which the country is making in almost every other 
branch of art and scientific discovery, and manifests itself in nearly everything which 
pertains to the modus ojieraiuU of general carpentr}'. It must not, however, be 
inferred, that because of modern ingenuity and invention there is less need of care 
and skill in our workmen now than formerly. On the contrary, owing to the higher 
degree of finish and embellishment generally bestowed upon our structures, there is an 
increased necessity for the exercise of taste and circumspection in every branch of 
joinery. 

In order to keep pace with the spirit of the age, every intelligent mechanic, who 
aims at being thorough in the practice of his profession, should make himself acquainted 
with its principles, should closely scan and well consider every new invention which 
claims to efiect an improvement in their application ; and, above all, should endeavor 
to attain such a knowledge of geometrical lines and construction as will enable him 
to understand with facility the several drawings given him from time to time for his 
guidance. 

To the minor tools and materials used in joinery we need not refer. These are 
well known to almost every one who has had even moderate experience in joinery 
or its uses. And in fact, the improvements to which we have referred have led to 
such changes in their preparation and application as would lead us, did we touch on 
them at all, into descriptions much more lengthened than the limits at our disposal 
would afibrd. 

On the character and finish of a joiner's work depend much of the appearance 
of a building, and no exertions should be spared in the endeavor to perfect it in a 
neat and tasteful manner; for no matter how much strength and accuracy may be 
consulted in the several joints, if the finishing be disregarded, elegance can never be 
obtained. When a joiner works in the harder and more costly descriptions of wood, 
such as walnut, oak, or mahogany, his main object should be to obtain a perfectly 
smooth and even surface. Too much pains cannot be taken in the finer descriptions 
of joiners' work : glue, where it oozes on the outer surface, should be nicely removed ; 
the joints should be carefully leveled; and the use of a smooth scraper and fine 



PLATE XXVII. 

On this plate arc given four JiiTerent designs for folding doors. Of these, Figs. 1 and 2 are 
best adapted for vestibules. The example on Fig. 1 is two panels in height, the upper of which 
are intended to be filled with plate-glass of at least one-fourth of an inch in thickness. The door 
will be double-faced, with similar mouldings on both sides. The inner mouldings which surround 
the fillets project from their face, flush to that of the stiles and rails ; the outer ones, which are of 
smaller dimensions, are also flush with the stiles, etc., thus leaving a surface free of projections, 
which is necessary, in cases where the doors are made to slide. This arrangement of the mould- 
ings, however, is not desirable when the doors are not intended to be of this description. In other 
cases, the centre mouldings should have a suitable p)rojection, thus adding much to the appearance 
of the door, and giving to the finishing a bold and increased effect. The other example on Fig. 2 
is also intended for glass panels, for which, however, wood may be substituted, if deemed more 
suitable. This door is almost similar to the preceding, the only point of difference being in the 
form of the corners of the panels. The mouldings may be treated in either of the methods alluded 
to above, as circumstances may determine. 

Fig. 3 is well adapted for an outer door. It has three panels in each fold. In form and 
finishing the mouldings resemble those in Fig. 1, with the exception that the frieze-panel is here 
introduced. "When doors of this description are intended to be used in important buildings, they 
should be framed in two thicknesses and screwed together. If it be desirable, sheet-iron may be 
inserted between the thicknesses of the panels and fillets, or made to cover the entire surface. 
"When the iron is not introilueed, a single thickness will be sufficient for the panels and fillets, 
but the latter in either case should be framed. 

Fig. 4 is an example of two panels in height; the upper of these being made circular at the 
top. The character of this form is also appropriate for an exterior finish. It is equally well 
adapted for vestibule and other interior doors. None of the foregoing examples can in any 
instance be less than one inch and three-quarters in thickness, if made double-faced. 

(60) 



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CARPENTRY AND JOINERY. 67 

glass-paper is in many instances necessary, more especially when the wood is intended 
to be left in its natural color for the purpose of being afterwards polished with Avax, 
or varnished. 

When work is intended to be grained in imitation of any particular kind of wood 
— a process now in very extensive use — great pains should be taken in its preparation. 
In more than one case which has recently come under the authoi"'s cognizance, the 
interior wood-work of all the principal apartments of a residence has been left in 
its natural colors, and afterwards coated with preparations of varnish calculated to 
bring out the grain and enhance the appearance of the various woods. In many 
descriptions of wood this process of varnishing over the natural ligneous color has a 
very pleasing effect. A whole suite of apartments may be finished in this manner, 
each with a different wood, — the doors of the several rooms alone being uniform, as 
these are generally made of darker and heavier material. The choice of particular 
descriptions of wood depends to a considerable extent upon the location of the dwell- 
ing in which they afe intended to be used. Some species of timber are indigenous, 
and can, of course, in particular cases, be more readily obtained than other's. "We 
may instance some woods within the scope of our own immediate practice, which, 
when arranged and varnished ui the way wc have mentioned, produce a very pleasing 
and pretty effect, viz., cotton-wood, china-wood, maple, ash, cherry, beech, poplar, and 
yellow-pine ; not to mention walnut, oak, and mahogany, which have been previously 
treated m this manner. Li the internal finishing of the higher class of buildings, 
the aid of turning has been made extensively available. By this means, ornaments 
of varied description, and balusters to stairs, galleries, etc., of peculiar merit, have 
been produced. They possess almost every conceivable advantage over those formerly 
in use, both in regai'd to the beauty of their design and workmanship, and the variety 
of their forms. Carving also lends its aid in the work of embellishment, and is 
rapidly growing into favor. Fox'merly it was little used in consequence of the expense. 
But now, when almost palatial residences, costly stores, and magnificent churches are 
springing up around us, and meet the eye at almost every turn, the use of this beau- 
tiful decorative art cannot be dispensed with. An improved kind of marquetry, or 
curious inlaid work, composed of pieces of hard fine wood, arranged in various forms, 
and woven as it were into each other, has recently been patented and introduced. 

In particular cases it makes an admirable substitute for common flooring. It is 
well adapted for use in vestibules, libraries, picture-galleries, and large apartments in 



PLATE XXVIII. 

Six designs are liere presented for single doors, the upper panels of the first three of which 
are intended to be filled with plate-glass, which may be either stained or enameled. Fig. 1 may 
be easily adapted to vestibules in narrow passages, in cases where single doors are most desirable. 
The panels below the lock-rail arc moulded with a plain fillet. Fig. 2 is an example in the 
Gothic style. When a door of this description is intended to be double-faced, it is necessary that 
the thickness should be at least two inches, in order to obtain sufficient depth for the sinking of 
the mouldings. Fig. 3, like both of the preceding examples, is intended to be employed in 
vestibules. 

The three remaining examples are designed for exterior doors. Of these, Fig. 4 is made with 
frieze-panels above. All the panels have moulded fillets, which project from their face, and finish 
flush with the outer surface. As used for external finish, the outer mouldings should have suitable 
projection, so as to overlap the stiles and rails. This gives a better eflect to the finish, and bold- 
ness and character to the mouldings. 

The method usually pursued in finishing the inner side of doors, such as we have reference 
to, consists in making the face of the panels flush with the stiles. This is technically termed 
finishing with "bead and flush," or "bead and butt." These merely differ in the manner of 
beading the joint around the panels, as according to the former the bead is mitred at the corners, 
while in the latter mode the beads butt against each other. This form of finish gives increased 
thickness, and greater solidity and firmness to the panels, than if they were moulded on both faces. 

Fig. 5 is a Gothic example, square in its outline; the filling in of the panels are in keeping 
with the style. This form is appropriate for external finish, in a Gothic edifice, when head-lights 
are requisite. When thus used, the contour peculiar to the style should be formed by the con- 
tinuation of the head-light, in connection with the S(iuare outline of the door. If, as intended, 
this examjile be applied externally, and made double-faced, it will require to be fully two and a 
half inches thick, with the stiles and rails in two thicknesses, and screwed together. Fig. 6 is 
also adapted for external use. The panels are finished and moulded on both sides, and those 
above have circular tops. 



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CARPENTRY AND JOINERY. 69 

which, owing to their great extent, or the paucity of furniture, an increased efiect 
on the walls, ceiling, or floor, is desirable. Brackets and scrolls of unique form and 
beautiful finish are also turned from the saw, ready, without further elaboration, to 
occupy the positions for which they were designed. 

The foregoing are but a few of the most noticeable improvements which have of 
late years been introduced into what, taken as a whole, may not inaptly be termed 
Ornamental Joinery. It would be impossible for us, in our present limits, to particu- 
larize any further, or to specify the minor arts and inventions which the teeming 
brain of industry brings forth from day to day, to improve and simplify its work. 

The application of steam machinery to sawing, planing, and mortising, and for 
the manufacture of mouldings, sash, and doors, may be inaidentally mentioned, as 
having tended to the introduction of essential changes in the practice of joinery. 

We think we have said enough in the preceding observations to make it apparent 
that in no former time were taste, neatness, and intelligence more requisite qualifica- 
tions in our artizans than in the present. No abstract rules will teach a man his 
business. Close study and intelligent observation are necessary. He who aims at 
excellence must make himself conversant with the principles on which his art is 
founded. 



PLATE XXIX. 

This plate contains six examples of different forms of doors, all adapted for interior finish. 

Fig. 1 is a six-panel door, in which the panels are equally divided, and single-moulded. These 
need not he made more than one and a half inches in thickness; and if made single-faced, with 
raised or flush panels on the inner side, may be still further reduced to one and a quarter inches. 
Fig. 2 is a four-panel door of almost similar construction, having a broad centre, or, as it is more 
usually termed, lock-rail. Fig. 3 is another description of six-panel door, with frieze-panels in 
the centre; those above have circular tops. Fig. 4 is an eight-panel door, those in the centre 
and at the top being of the form termed frieze. Fig. 5 is six-paneled, with frieze-panels at the 
top. Fig. 6 is another example of the six-paneled form, with frieze-panels in the centre. 

For the general iuforraatiou of the reader, we insert the method necessary to be employed in 
order to determine the widths of the panels, stiles, and rails, in doors of this description: — 

Divide the entire width of the door into seven equal parts, and of these give two to the 
breadth of each panel, and one part to the width of each of the stiles. The width of the upper 
rails should always equal that of the stiles; the width of the bottom rail is usually made twice 
the width of the stiles, or equal to two of the given parts. The width of the lock-rail varies 
according to the description of the panels used; but where there is no frieze-paneling, it is 
generally made equal in width to two of the stiles. 

To find the proportion of the frieze-panel : — Divide the space between the stile and munton 
into seven equal parts, of which five given vertically to the panel will form its height. The divi- 
sion of the parts is marked on Fig. 4. 

For further explanation in regard to the forms and application of mouldings and fillets, the 
reader is referred to Plate LXYI., on which will be found a variety of these forms, all drawn 
carefully to a scale of one-half the full size. 

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THE FIYE ORDERS OF ARCHITECTURE. 



Having in the preceding pages explained and illustrated several of the most 
important and useful branches connected with Constructive Architecture, the next 
division of our work brings us to the consideration of those great creations of the 
ancients which have never been added to or excelled — the Five Orders. 

The examples we have chosen are the best and most celebrated of their respective 
kinds, arranged witli cai'e, and accompanied by such plain yet minute descriptions as 
will serve clearly to elucidate the principles of the different orders, and thus make 
the distribution and proportions of their several parts and members easily apparent. 

In the fulfilment of our task we have exercised great care. Our principal object 
has been so to simplify the arrangement and description of the orders as to present 
them in the plainest and most intelligible form. We have culled the best examples, 
consulted the most reliable authorities, and availed ourselves generally of the mate- 
rials placed at our disposal by those whose researches in this field have rendex'ed 
them eminent. 

Our first examples are Grecian. The Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian, were the only 
orders used by the Greeks. The Tuscan and Composite were used only in Italy; 
the first more rude, the latter more ornate, than the Greek orders, which occupied a 
middle rank. To attain a proper knowledge of the true principles of Architecture, 
the student should devote his most careful attention to the study of the three Grecian 
orders, as in them these principles are faithfully portrayed. 

The first Grecian order in point of antiquity is the Doric, so called from the 
Dores, a small tribe in Greece ; or, as others say, from Dorus, an Achaian chief, who 
first employed the order in erecting a temple to Juno, at Argos. 

Our first plate contains an example of the Grecian Doric, taken from the Temple 
of Theseus, at Athens. 

(71) 



PLATE XXX. 

THE TRINCIPAL PARTS OF THE GRECIAN DORIC ORDER. 

Any altitude being proposed for this wliolc order, make the lower diameter of the shaft of the 
column one-eighth of the entire height of the order; divide the diameter of the column into two 
ef(ual parts, then one of the.se parts will be a module ; divide the module into thirty equal parts, 
and each of these parts will be a minute. Make the height of the column twelve modules, and 
that of the capital one module. Divide the height of the capital into five equal parts ; and of 
these, give one to the neck, and two to the annulets and echinus; make the annulets one-quarter 
of the echinus, and give the remaining two parts to the abacus. Jlake the upper diameter of the 
shaft three-quarters of its lower diameter, and the length of each side of the abacus two modules 
and twelve minutes. The height of the entablature is four modules, of which the cornice has one 
module, and the frieze and architrave each forty-five minutes. Again divide the height of the 
frieze into eight parts, giving the upper one to the capital of the triglyph, and the three lower 
to the channels. Make the inner edge of the angle triglyph directly over the axis of the column; 
its breadth should 1)0 twenty-eight minutes ; and the distance between the intermediate triglyphs 
should be equal to the height of the frieze, and their position directly over the centres of the 
columns. Make the tenia or upper fillet one-tenth of the height of the architrave, and the 
regula, together with the drops, e(|ual in lieiglit to the tenia. The height of the cornice being 
one module, give to the small bead on its lower part one minute, and to the height of the mutules 
and guttre, four minutes and a half. The length of the mutules equals the breadth of the 
triglyphs, and their projection beyond the triglyphs extends to two-thirds of their length. These 
should be placed directly over the centres of the triglyphs and in the middle of the metopes or 
intermediate spaces. The fillet above the mutules, which is one and a half minutes high, projects 
beyond the mutule half a minute. Make the height of the corona ten minutes, and its projection 
beyond the fillet one minute ; the height of the small echinus is one minute and a quarter ; and 
over it comes a fillet of the same height. Over this fillet make another echinus six minutes and 
a half high, and two minutes will remain for the height of the fillet above the echinus. Tlie 
opposite example is taken from one of the most celebrated buildings now remaining of tliis 
order. The module is divided into thirty parts or minutes ; the measures are all numbered in 
these parts; the projections are reckoned from a line representing the axis of the column, and are 
figured at the extremities of each member. 



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THE FIVE ORDERS OF ARCHITECTURE. 73 

THE GRECIAN IONIC ORDER. 

GENERAL REMARKS. 

It may be observed in the general definition of the orders, that every order con- 
sists of a cokimn and an entablature; that every column consists of a shaft, base, 
and capital, except in the Doric, where the base is omitted ; that every entablature 
consists of an architrave, a frieze, and a cornice; that the base, shaft, capital, archi- 
trave, frieze, and cornice, are the principal members of an order; and that the pecu- 
Har mode or form of the members determines the particular name of the order. 

But since many of the mouldings are common to all the orders, and are gene- 
rated in a similar manner, what has been said on the Doric order will render it 
unnecessary to repeat the same things in the Ionic, as such mouldings cannot form 
a distinctive feature of any particular order. The subjoined definitions show how 
these members ought to be modified so that they may constitute the Ionic order. 

DEFINITIONS. 

1. K from the under side of the abacus of an order there project two or more 
spirals on each end of the front, in a plane parallel to the frieze, so that the extremity 
of each shall be at the same distance from the axis of tlie column, and also two 
others upon the opposite side of the abacus, parallel to the former and projecting 
the same distance from the axis of the column, so that each of the spirals shall 
have the same number of revolutions, and equal and similar to each other, the pro- 
jecting part contained between any two spirals is called a volute. 

2. An order which has volutes and mouldings in the capital of the annular 
kind, and the ichnography of the abacus square, as in the Doric order, the archi- 
trave finishing of plain facia, and mouldings either plain or enriched, the frieze a 
plain surface, the cornice consisting of a cyma recta, then a fillet, and an echinus 
only; and if to the under side of the corona are hung a row of equal and similar 
parallelopipeds, equidistant from each othei', whose fronts are in a plane parallel to 
that of the frieze, then each of these is called a dentil. 

3. An order so constructed is similar to that invented by the lonians, and, con- 
sequently, is the Ionic order. 

K 



PLATE XXXI. 

FROM THE TEMPLE OF BACCHUS AT TEOS, IN IONIA. 

This tcmplo was first begun of the Doric order by Hermogcnus ; but afterwards he changed 
it into tliat of the Ionic, and dedicated it to Bacchus. 

This example is drawn from tlio accurate measurements, as taken from that celebrated building. 
The dentils in the cornice add greatly to the character of the order. 

Of the elevation of the order, it may be observed that the measm-ements of the parts marked 
by letters have been supplied by conjecture, as no remains of the originals could be found. 

It is thought by some, from the little differences which exist between the shaft at the base 
and the portion of it immediately under the capital, that the base which is here exhibited in con- 
nection with the shaft, did not occupy that position in the original order, but rather belonged to 
some of the interior columns. This supposition is strengthened by the fact that the ancients 
always made their interior ranges of columns less in diameter than those on the exterior, as in the 
Temple of Minerva, the Propylea, and other celebrated Athenian buildings. 

Be this as it may, the form of base shown, which is termed the Attic, seems to have been the 
most favorite one among the ancients, as it is also among the moderns. It is not so heavy as 
that termed the Ionic; its contour is pleasing, and in general appearance elegant. 

In this example, the channel connecting the two volutes is not formed with a border on the 
lower edge, but is terminated with a horizontal line, which falls a tangent to the curve of the 
spiral at the commencement of the second revolution of each volute. 

It may here be generally remarked, that in the Ionic the shaft is fluted, as in the Doric, 
with this difference, however, that the number of flutes is increased from twenty to twenty-four, 
and their junctions are formed by fillets, instead of sharp arrises. The channels being thus multi- 
plied, and set apart from each other, are consequently much narrower than those of the Doric 
order, and are much deeper in proportion to their breadth ; and their extremities terminate in the 
semi-circle, or semi-ellipse. 






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THE FIVE ORDERS OF ARCHITECTURE. 75 



ROMAN DORIC. 

The Doric, as we have observed before, is the oldest and simplest of the three 
orders used by the Greeks, but it was ranked by the writers of the Eenaissance as 
the second of the five Roman orders. The shaft of the column has twenty flutings, 
which are separated by a sharp edge, and not by a fillet as in the other orders, and 
they are less than a semicircle in depth; the moulding below the abacus of the 
capital is an ovolo; the architrave of the entablature is surmounted with a plain 
fillet, called the tenia; the frieze is ornamented by flat projections, with three chan- 
nels cut in each, which are called triglyphs; the spaces between these are called 
metopes; under the triglyphs and below the tenia of the architrave are placed small 
drops or gutta? ; along the top of the frieze runs a broad fillet, called the capital of 
the triglyphs; the soffit of the cornice has broad and shallow blocks Avorked on it, 
called mutules, one of which is placed over each metope and each triglyph ; on the 
under surface are several rows of gutta3 or drops. In these respects the Eomau 
Doric is identical with the Grecian, but in other points there is considerable difler- 
ence. In the pure Grecian examples the column has no base, and its height varies 
from about four to six and a half diameters; the capital has a perfectly plain square 
abacus, and the ovolo is but little if at all curved in section, except at the top, where 
it is quirked under the abacus; under the ovolo are a few plain fillets and small 
channels, and a short distance below them a deep narrow channel is cut in the shaft; 
the flutes of the shaft are continued up to the fillets under the ovolo. 

In the Roman Doric the shaft is usually from seven to eight diameters high, and 
generally has a base, frequently the Attic, and sometimes that which is peculiar to 
the order, consisting of a plinth and torus, with an astragal above it; the capital 
has a small moulding round the top of the abacus, and the ovolo is in section a quarter 
circle, and is not quirked; under the ovolo are two or three small fillets, and below 
them a coUarino or neck. In the Roman Doric, the triglyphs at the angles of build- 
ings must be placed over the centre of the column, and the metopes must be exact 
squares. Sometimes the mutules are omitted, and a row of dentils is worked under 
the cornice. 



PLATE XXXII. 

The example giveu on the opposite plate is an Elevation of the Doric order from the Baths 
of Diocletian, at Rome, with the proportions in numbers. Owing to the abundance of mouldings 
and enrichments in the cornice, this may be termed enricJied Boric. The disposition of the 
triglyphs and metopes in the frieze is according to the rules of Vitruvius. 

We append a method, whereby may be determined the proportions of the difiercnt parts, the 
intercolumniations and the distribution of the metopes, in a facjade or portico of the Doric order, 
according to the rules observed by the ancients in the erection of their temples. 

The front of a Doric temple, whore the columns are placed, is divided, if it be terastyle, into 
twenty-eight parts ; if hexastyle, into forty-four. One of these parts will be the module. The 
thickness of the column must be two modules ; the height, with the capital, fourteen ; the height 
of the capital itself one module, and the breadth two modules and a sixth. The height of the 
capital is divided into three parts, of which one is given to the abacus with the cimatium ; another 
to the echinus with the annulets; and the third to the hypotrachclion. The height of the epi- 
stilium, with the tenia and drops, is one module. The tenia has the seventh of a module, the 
length of a drop under the tenia, coinciding with the perpendicular of the triglyphs. Their 
height with the rcgula is one-sixth of a module. The breadth of the epistilium also answers to 
the hypotrachclion of tiie column. On the epistilium are placed the triglyphs, one module in 
breadth and one and a half in height. Two of these are between each column, and one over 
the centre of the column at the angle. The breadth of the triglyphs is divided into twelve 
eipal parts, of which the breadth of the femur in the middle will be two parts. On each side 
of the femur is cut a channel, whose breadth is equal to two parts. Next to the channels two 
other femurs are left, each equal to the breadth of the middle femur, and the part which remains 
next to the edge of each triglyph is cut in the form of a semi-channel. On either side of this, 
channels are sunk, as if imprinted by the elbow of a square. To the right and left of these 
another femur is formed. In the same manner semi-channels must be sunk at the extremities. 
The triglyphs being thus disposed, the height of the metopes equals their length. On the 
angles the semi-metopes are made half a module in width. The capitals of the triglyphs have 
one-sixth of the module. On these is placed the corona, which projects a half and one-sixth of 
a module, having a cimatium above and another below. In the under part of the corona, over the 
triglyphs and metopes, the drops in the mutules are distributed, six in length and three in 
breadth. The spaces between the metopes being rather broader than the triglyphs, are left 
either plain or carved ; and at the edge of the corona, a channel, termed a scotui, is cut. All 
the remaining members arc tlic same as in the Ionic order. 

(76) 



)-ii):yA,^ DS^}l2£ 




THE FIVE ORDERS OF ARCHITECTURE. 77 



OF THE ORDERS IN GENERAL. 

The term order, as applied to Architecture, conveys the same meaning as that 
of harmony when applied to music ; or the more ancient one of ordonnance, when 
used in relation to painting. It means in fact an assemblage of parts and mould- 
ings, so disposed as to give an cflfect at once pleasing to the eye, and proportioned 
and adapted to the office each has to perform. 

Vitruvius, who was perhaps the first writer on Architecture who flourished after 
the birth of Christ, expresses this idea as follows : " It is an apt and regular dispo- 
sition of the members of a work separately, and a comparison of the universal pro- 
portion with symmetry." Scamozzi, one of the old masters, a contemporary of Palladio, 
and who after the death of that great architect had no competitor, seems to convey 
the same meaning when he observes : " That it is a kind of excellency which infinitely 
adds to the shape and beauty of buildings, sacred or profane." The idea thus 
expressed is comprehended in the terms proprieiy and harmony. 

Each of the compositions known generally as "The Five Orders" consists, as 
we have elsewhere stated, of two parts, the column and entablature ; each of which 
is again divided into three other parts, which are severally composed of mouldings, 
each respectively proportioned and adapted to the order of which it forms a part. 
The orders are, the Tuscan, Doric, Ionic, Corinthian, and Composite; each of which 
is peculiar in its composition, and well calculated to express the various attributes of 
strength, grace, elegance, and richness. These orders, rightly understood and cor- 
rectly applied, are the foundation upon which Architecture has long rested. The 
three most ancient are the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian, to which the Romans added 
the Tuscan, as they subsequently did the Composite. Vitruvius speaks of the former 
as " rustic even to deformity ;" nor were the later masters more favorable to it, except 
Palladio. The Composite, the other Eoman invention, is termed by Sir Henry Wotton 
the compounded order. It is composed of parts of the other orders, but principally 
of the Ionic and Corinthian. 

The proportions of the parts of the orders are as various as the examples, but 
few authors agreeing. In those we have chosen the parts are figured, and as we 
proceed, explanations of the orders more in detail will be furnished under the proper 
heads. 



PLATE XXXIII. 

Is a fini-licJ elevation of the modern Doric from Sir William Clambers, wlio took his example 
from Vignola. As on the other plates, the correct proportions are here given in numbers, thus 
rendering further description unnecessary. 

We insert in this place the following rules, given by Yitruvius, for the diminution of columns, 
which is equally applicable to this and all other kinds of shafts, the Tuscan alone excepted. 

" The diminution of the top of th.c column at the hypotrachelion is thus regulated. If the 
column be not less than fifteen feet high, the thickness at the bottom is divided into six parts, 
and five of these parts are given as the thickness at the top. If the height be from fifteen to 
twenty feet, the bottom of the shaft is divided into six parts and a half, and five and a half of 
these parts make the thickness of the column at the top. If it be from twenty to thirty feet, 
the bottom is divided into seven parts, and six of these make the diminution at the top. If from 
thirty to forty feet high, the thickness of the shaft at bottom is divided into seven and a half 
parts, of which six and a half are the measure of the diminution at the top. If the column be 
from forty to fifty feet in height, it is divided into eight parts, whereof seven will make the thickness 
of the hypotrachelion at the top of the shaft. And if their altitude be still greater, the same 
proportional method is to be observed in the treatment of columns ; for, as a greater height 
causes them to appear more diminished, they are therefore to be corrected by an addition of thick- 
ness, beauty being the province of the eye, which, if not satisfied by the due proportion and 
augmentation of the members, correcting apparent deficiencies with pn.iper additions, the aspect 
will appear coarse and displeasing." 

Of the order in general it has been remarked, that " on viewing and comparing the examples 
of the Doric order, the first emotion will probably be one of surprise, at beholding the different 
proportions, — a diversity so great that scarcely any two instances appear which do not materially 
differ in the relative size of their parts, both in general and in detail, and presenting differences 
which cannot be reconciled upon any system of calculation, whether the diameter or the height 
of the column, or the general height of the order, be taken as the element of proportion. At 
the same time, they all resemble one another in certain characteristic marks, which denote the 
order ; the difl'erences are not generic, but specific, and leave unimpaired those plain and obvious 
marks which enable us to circumscribe the genuine Doric order within a simple and easy 
definition." 



J[ OHDK 




TTTTTV 





THE FIVE ORDERS OF ARCHITECTURE. 79 



ROMAN IONIC ORDER. 

In this order the capital becomes the chief characteristic, which is sufScient to 
distinguish it from any other, although from the preceding, or Doric order, it is dis- 
tinguishable by many other marked differences, such as the employment of a distinct 
base; the much altered proportions; the increased number and different contour of 
the flutes, and the introduction of fillets; the increased ornamentation of the entabla- 
ture; and by many other variations. 

The shaft varies from eight and a quarter to nine and a half diameters in height. 
The echinus, astragal, and fillet, are common to both Greciaii and Ionic capitals, and 
the echinus is uniformly cut into eggs, surrounded with angular-sectioned borders, and 
with tongues between every two borders. The astragal is formed into a row of beads, 
with two small ones between every two large ones. These mouldings are cut in a 
similar manner in aU the Eoman buildings except the Coliseum. 

The capitals of all the columns are sometimes made to face the four sides of the 
abacus ahke on each side, as in the Temple of Concord, at Rome, from which example 
the Scamozzian capital was formed. 

The Attic base was adopted by the Romans, and seems to have been their most 
favorite form, for it is not only employed in all the examples of this order at Rome, but 
frequently in the Corinthian and Composite orders also. However, the proportions of the 
Attic base as employed by the Romans are different from that employed by the Greeks. 

There are but few examj^les of this order, as practised by the Romans, remaining 
entire; among them are the Theatre of Marcellus, the Temple of Concord, and that 
of Fortuna Virilis. Although these Roman examples are of consideraljle merit, they 
would seem to fall short of the Grecian in taste and elegance. The capital was 
impoverished by the volutes being considerably reduced in size. In the Temple of 
Concord the volutes are placed diagonally. This is one among many varieties of the 
Roman Ionic capital, of which there is no lack, some being ornamented with human 
figures, masks, busts, etc. These differences are sufficient to show that the ancients 
did not confine themselves to the same treatment of this order on all occasions. 

The Roman entablature differs also from the Grecian, especially in the proportions 
of the cornice, which in the latter case is less than either of the other members, whereas 
in examples of Roman practice the cornice is by far the most important division. 



PLATE XXXIV. 

In this plate is represented the design of the cautiquc profile, collected by Sir "William 
Chambers, from diflereut antiquities at Rome, proportioned by modules and minutes. The height 
of the column is eighteen modules, and that of the entablature four and a half, or one-quarter 
of the height of the column, as in the other orders ; -which is a trifle less than in any of the 
ancient examples. The base is Attic, as it is in most of the Roman antiques, and the shaft of 
the column may be either plain or fluted, with twenty-four or twenty flutings only, the plan of 
which flutings should be a trifle more than semicircular ; because, when so executed, they are 
more distinctly marked. The fillets, or intervals between the flutes, should not bo much broader 
than one-third of their width, nor narrower than one-quarter. Tlie ornaments of the capital 
should correspond with the flutes of the shaft ; and there should be an ove or dart, according 
to the strict rules of the Romans, over the middle of each flute. 

The three parts of the Ionic entablature, as represented in this plate, bear the same propor- 
tion to each other, as in the Tuscan order; the frieze is plain, as being the most suitable to the 
simplicity of the rest of the composition ; and the cornice is almost an exact copy — without the 
enrichments — from Vignola's design, in which there is a purity of form, a grandeur of style, and 
a close conformity to the most approved specimens of the ancients, not to be equaled in any of 
the profiles of his competitors. 

If it be requisite to reduce the Ionic entablature to two-ninths of the height of the column, 
which in most cases is preferable to that of one-quarter, it may easily be accomplished by making 
the module of the entablature less, by one-ninth, than the semi-diameter of the column; after- 
wards dividing it as usual, and strictly observing the same dimensions as are figured on the plate. 
The distribution of the dentil-band will, in such case, answer very nearly in all the regular inter- 
columniations, and in the extreme angle there will be a dentil, as there is in the best examples 
of the antique. 

In the decorations of the interior of all apartments, when much delicacy is requisite, and 
the eye has to contemplate diminutive objects, the height of the entablature may be reduced 
even to one-fifth of the column, by observing the same method, and making the module only four- 
fifths of the semi-diameter. 

(BO) 





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THE FIVE ORDERS OF ARCHITECTURE. 81 



ROMAN CORINTHIAN ORDER. 

Although the Romans in all probability borrowed the idea of this order from the 
Greeks, and cannot therefore rightly lay claim to its invention, they are fully entitled 
to the praise due to its perfection; the order, as far as we know it, is rather Roman 
than Greek. We cannot be said to know of more than three examples in Greece, 
and these are the Tower of the Winds, the Monument of Lysicrates, and the Temple 
of Jupiter at Olympia; there are others, it is true, as the Temple of Jupiter Olym- 
pius at Athens, but this was erected long after the order had been practised by the 
Romans. The principal Italian specimens are the Temple of Jupiter Stater, three 
columns of which remain in the Campo, Rome ; the Pantheon ; the Temple of Vesta, 
or the Sibyl, at Tivoli; the temples of Mars Ultor, Jupiter Capitoliuus, Vesta at 
Rome, Antonius and Faustina, and of Jupiter Tonans. Among all the specimens 
Avhich have come to our knowledge there are not two alike; they all vary in detail, 
and some very much so; some fragments bear evidence of the introduction of figures 
of animals, etc. 

The Romans, in borrowing their architecture from the Greeks, appear to have 
indiscriminately employed the Corinthian order, which they found possessed of an 
ornamental character adapted to the splendor and magnificence of their taste, in the 
same manner that the early Greeks used the Doric, and the lonians the order which 
bears their name. 

The orders of Architecture appear to be altogether national; thus the numerous 
temples of Greece and its Sicilian colonies are Doric, and bear one general character; 
the Ionian cities present the best, the most elegant, and chaste examples of the Ionic 
order; while Italy, Balbec, and Palmyra, exhibit the Corinthian almost to the exclu- 
sion of any other. 

Some writers suppose that the Corinthian arose naturally out of the Doric order, 
while most modern writers are of opinion that the capital was invented l^y the Egyp- 
tians; yet, although many bell-formed capitals are to be found among the ruins of 
Egypt, the Corinthian is superior to anything yet discovered there; and even in the 
present day, this capital exliibits the utmost elegance, beauty, and richness, that have 
ever been attained in architectural composition, though many attempts have been 
made to excel it. 

L 



PLATE XXXV. 

Is a finished olcv.itii)n of the Corinthian base, capital, and entablature, with the proportions of the 
members figured in minutes. 

The example here chosen is from the three famed columns in the Campo Vaccino at Rome, 
supposed to be the remains of the Temple of Jupiter Stater, and certainly one of the most perfect 
and elegant remains of this order that antiquity can produce. 

It may bo well, in lieu of a more extended notice of the example, to append a general 
description of the standard form of this order, for the details vary to a considerable extent in 
different examples : The average height of the column, inclusive of capital and base, taking a mean 
proportional between those of the Pantheon and the Temple of Jupiter Stater, is ten diameters, the 
shaft containing eight, and the remaining two being made up in the capital and base. The shaft 
in the ancient examples was almost invariably fluted, and the flutes occasionally filled to about one- 
third of their height with cabling; the number of the flutes is generally twenty-four, as in the 
Ionic order, and arranged in the same manner. The capital is separated from the shaft by an 
astragal and cincture, and is in the shape of an inverted bell, ornamented as follows : Imme- 
diately above the astragal are two rows of acanthus, or olive leaves, one above the other, each 
row consisting of eight leaves ; the upper row is arranged in such a manner as to have one leaf 
immediately in the centre of each side of and beneath the abacus, and one under each o«rner of 
the abacus, which, altogether, one in the centre of each side, and one at each angle of the capital, 
will make up the eight leaves. The leaves of the lower range are disposed so as to alternate 
with those of the upper, or, in other words, the upper leaves rise between the divisions of the lower 
ones. Between every two of the leaves of the upper, or second series, rises a stalk, out of which 
springs a bunch of foliage, consisting of two leaves, one of which branches toward the centre of the 
abacus, and the other toward the angle. Out of each of the leaves, at the angles, proceeds 
diagonally a volute, the two at each angle meeting under the abacus, which they support ; two 
smaller ones, emerging from the central leaves, meet under the centre of the al)acus, and are sur- 
mounted by a small flower, called the flower of the capital. The abacus is square in its general 
plan, with concave sides, curving out toward the angles, which are cut oft'. The mouldings 
consist of a cavetto, fillet, and echinus, the first and last of which are sometimes enriched. The 
proper Corinthian base differs from the Ionic or Attic, in having two smaller scotia, separated by 
two astragals; both bases, however, are used indiscriminately, and perhaps the Attic is more gene- 
rally em]ihiyril. 



THE FIVE OKDEllS OF A K C 11 1 T E C T U R E. go 

THE FIVE ORDERS ARRANGED IN PARTS. 

In the six preceding plates are contained some of the best and most celebrated 
examples of the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian orders, with their several proportions 
correctly figured in modules and minutes. And in order still more fully to elucidate 
and simplify the arrangement of this important department of our work, and to com- 
press within restricted limits all that will be likely to prove most useful and inte- 
resting, we here propose to give what may be termed a continuation of the treatment 
of the orders, which consists of an arrangement of all of their principal parts in 
detail, accompanied by simple descriptions. Interspersed with these will be found 
the opinions of some of the most eminent among ancient and modern architects on 
the " Proportions of the Orders," etc., collected from standard authorities and ar- 
ranged with perspicuity. 



THE PlUNCirAL TARTS OF THE TUSCAN OEDEll. 

Divide the given height for this whole order into ten parts, of which take two 
for that of the pedestal; and then divide the remaining eight parts into five, giving 
one of these to the altitude of the entablature, and the other four to the length of 
the column, inclusive of the base and capital ; by these means the entaljlature is made 
one-fourth of the length of the column. 

The entablature is divided into seven parts, of which two are given to the archi- 
trave, two to the frieze, and three to the cornice. Observe, also, tliat four of these 
parts are equal to the diameter of the column, and tliat seven of these diameters 
form its height. The altitude of the pedestal is divided into six parts, two being 
for the base and plinth, three for the height of the dado, and one for that of the cap. 
In order to find the breadth of the dado, the diameter of the column is divided into 
five parts, and seven such proportional parts form the breadth, and also determine 
the projection of the base of the column. 

The proportion of the base of the pedestal may be found by dividing the two 
parts allotted for the base and plinth into three, and giving one of these to the base 
and the remaining two to the plinth ; the projection of the base and cap of the pedestal 
is equal to the height of the former. 



PLATE XXXVI. 

THE TUSCAN PEDESTAL, WITH PART OF THE SHAFT OF THE COLUMN 
AND ITS BASE. 

The altitude of the base of the column is half a diameter ; this is divided into two equal 
parts, one of which is given to the plinth : the remaining part is again divided into four, of which 
one is given to the fillet, and three to the torus. 

The whole projection is equal to one-fifth of the diameter of the column; and the projection 
of the fillet equals its height. 

The altitude of the base, plinth, and cap of the pedestal has been already shown, but in 
order to find the proportions of the several members, the base is divided into three parts, of which 
one is given to the fillet, and two to the hollow. 

The altitude of the cap is divided into four parts, of which one is allowed to the ogee, two to 
the corona, and one to the band at the top. In regard to the projections, they both equal the 
altitude of the base; and being each divided into three parts, the projection of the several mem- 
bers may readily be obtained. 

(84) 



_m\ ill 




THE FIVE ORDERS OF ARCHITECTURE. 85 



GE^^ERAL REMARKS ON THE TUSCAN ORDER. 

The Tuscan is the simplest and most solid of the orders. It is composed of 
few and large parts, and is of a construction so massive that it seems capable of sup- 
porting the heaviest Ijurdens ; whence it is by Sir Henry Wotton compared to a sturdy 
laborer, dressed in homely apparel. 

This order will not admit of ornaments of any kind ; on the contrary, it is some- 
times customary to represent in the shaft of its column rustic cinctures, as at the 
Luxembourg in Paris, and in many buildings of considerable note in London. This 
practice, though frequent and to be met \nth. in many of the works of distinguished 
architects, is not always excusable, and should be indulged in with great caution, as 
it is calculated to hide the robust, characteristic, and truly rustic, )jut manly figure of 
the column, and also alters the proportions and affects the simplicity of the entire 
composition. Few examples of these bandages are to be found in ancient remains; 
and, in general, it is advisable to avoid them in all large designs, reserving the rustic 
work for th^ intercolumniating, where it may be employed with great propriety, and 
will serve to produce such a contrast as at once renders the aspect of the entire com- 
position perfect, distinct, and striking. 

But in smaller works, where the parts are few and easily comprehended, rustic 
cinctures may be sometimes introduced and sanctioned, as they serve to diversify the 
forms, produce strong and impressive contrasts, and contribute most essentially to the 
bold and masculine effect of the composition. 



PLATE XXXVII. 



THE TUSCAN ENTABLATntE AND CAPITAL. 

The wliolo altitude of the entablature Leing crjual to one and thrcc-fourtlis of a diameter, and 
the principal heights of the architrave, frieze, and cornice having been set oft', the architrave is 
next divided into six parts, of ivhich t-ffo are given to the first face, three to the second, and one 
to the band at the top. 

The projection of the band is equal to its altitude, and that of the second face is one-third 
of the foregoing. 

The altitude of the cornice is divided into nine parts, (or rather each principal third into 
three,) and of these one ami a half are given to the hollow ; one-half to the fillet ; one and a half 
to the ovolo ; two to the corona ; one-half to the fillet ; two to the cjma-recta ; and one to the 
upper fillet. 

The projection of the cornice is equal to its altitude, and is similarly divided; and the pro- 
jections of the several members are thus made so apparent on the palate, as to render further 
description unnecessary. 

The capital is half a diameter in height, and is divided into three parts, of which one is 
given to the frieze of the capital ; another to the ovolo and fillet, of which the latter has one- 
fourth ; and the remaining part to the abacus. To find the projection of the capital, divide the 
diameter of the colunni at the top into six equal parts, and give one of these to each side of the 
abacus; the whole of which will thus form eight parts, as described. 

The astragal or collarino is equal to one-third of the frieze of the capital in height, and that 
of the fillet is equal to one-half of the astragal ; the projection of each of these e(iuals their 
height. It may be remarked, that the proportions for this moulding serve for those in all the 
other orders. 

(8(j) 






^^gg^^^^gS 








THE FIVE ORDERS OP ARCHITECTURE 87 



THE PRINCIPAL PARTS OF THE DORIC ORDER. 



An altitude having been proposed for this whole order, divide it first into ten 
parts, of which allow two to the pedestal, and make the remaining eight parts into 
five ; then give four of these to the base, shaft, and capital of the column, and reserve 
the other for the entablature, which must be again subdivided into four parts, of which 
two will form the diameter of the column. Thus the column will be eight diameters 
in height, and the entablature one-fourth of the length of the column. Of the four 
divisions of the entablature, one is given to the architrave, one and a half to the 
frieze, and one and a half to the cornice. 

The architrave projects one-sixth of its height, and the projection of the cornice 
equals the diameter of the column. The height of the pedestal is divided into seven 
parts, of which two are given to the base and phnth, four to the dado, and one to 
the cap. 

The column diminishes one-sixth of its diameter in the upper two-thirds of the 
length of the shaft. If the lower diameter of the shaft be divided into five parts, 
and one of these added to each side, the whole will give the projection of the base, 
and also the breadth of the dado of the pedestal, which thus forms a perfect square. 

The base of the pedestal contains one-third of the two parts allotted for the base 
and plinth; its projection equals its height; the cap projects four-fifths of its height. 



PLATE XXXVIII. 



THE DORIC PEDESTAL, WITH TART OF TUE SDAl'T OF THE COLUMN 
AND ITS BASE. 

Tlic lieigbt of tlie base of column is lialf its diameter, and tLe projection gives the breadth of 
tbe pedestal, which is one diameter and two-fifths. The several heights of the plinth, base, and 
cap of the pedestal are described on the preceding page. To find the proportions of the indi- 
vidual members, divide the height of the base into six parts, of which three are given to the 
torus ; one to the fillet ; and two to the hollow ; the projections being figured in parts, are easily- 
obtained by a reference to the plate. The cap is divided into five parts, of which one is given 
to the hollow ; half a part to the fillet ; one and a half to the ovolo ; one and a half to the 
corona ; and half a part to the fillet at the top. The whole projection of the cap equals four- 
fifths of its height ; and that of each particular member may be seen upon the plate. 

The height of the base of the column has three divisions ; the lower one of these being 
reserved for tlii> jilinth, the upper torus receives a half of the corresponding division ; and the 
whole of the reniaiuder, as will be seen by the plate, is divided equally between the lower torus 
and the portion embracing the scotia and the fillets; the half which contains these is again sub- 
divided into six parts, of which the scotia receives four, and the fillets the remaining two. The 
whole projection of the base is one-fifth of the diameter, and is divided into three parts, of which 
one forms the projection of the upper fillet, and two arc given to that of the upper torus. All of 
these heights and projections are fully explained in the example. 

On the lower part of the shaft is described the plan for fluting the column. The flutes 
should be twenty in number, merely separated by an edge or arris. A and B denote diflerent 
methods of finding the form or depth of the flutes. 

(88) 



rf^ 



THE FIVE ORDERS OP ARCHITECTURE. 



GENERAL REMARKS ON THE DORIC ORDER. 

The Doric order, next in strength to the Tuscan, and of a grave, robust, or 
masculine aspect, is, by Scamozzi, called the Herculean. Being the most ancient of 
all the orders it is more primitive in its form than any of the others, having triglyphs 
in the frieze to represent the ends of joists, and mutules in its cornice to represent 
rafters, Avitli inclined soffits to express their direction in the originals, from which 
they were imitated. The Doric columns are often seen in ancient works, executed 
without bases, in imitation of trees ; and, in the primitive buildings, without any plinths 
to raise them aljove the ground. 

Freart de Cambrai, in speaking of this order, observes that delicate ornaments 
are repugnant to its characteristic solidity, and that it succeeds best in the simple 
regularity of its proportions. "Nosegays and garlands of flowei's," says he, ''grace 
not a Hercules, who always appears more becomingly with a rough club and lion's 
skin ; for there are beauties of various sorts, and often so dissimilar in their natures, 
that those which may be highly proper on one occasion may be quite the reverse, 
even ridiculously absurd, in others." 

In most of the antiques, the Doric column is found to have been executed without 
a base; this is particularly ob.servable in examining the remains of Grecian examples. 
Vitruvius also makes it without one ; the base, according to this author, having been 
first employed in the Ionic order to imitate the sandal or covering of a woman's 
foot. Scamozzi blames this practice, and most of the moderns have been of his 
opinion; the Attic base is now generally employed in this order. 

Chamljers says, that the ancients employed the Doric in temples dedicated to 
Minerva, to Mars, and to Hercules, whose grave and manly dispositions suited well 
with its character; and Serlio remarks that it is proper for churches dedicated to 
saints remarkable for their fortitude in exposing their lives, and suffering for the 
Christian faith. It may be employed in private dwellings; and is particularly well 
adapted for columns erected to the memory of brave men, or intended to commemorate 
great victories or heroic actions. 



PLATE XXXIX. 



THE DORIC ENTABLATURE AND CAPITAL. 

As previously mentioned, the wliole height of this entablature, ivliich consists of two diameters, 
is divided into four parts, of which the architrave receives one ; the frieze one and a half ; and 
the cornice one and a half. To find the proportions of tlic several members, the architrave is 
divided into six parts ; two of these arc given to the first face, three to the second, and one to 
the band at the top. The drops on the second face have one of its parts, of which their fillet 
receives one-third ; their projection also e(|uals a part. The frieze is embellished with triglyphs, 
which are half a diameter in breadth; one of these must be placed over the centre of the column; 
and the space between each is termed the metope, which should be equal to the height of the 
frieze. The trigljphs are each divided into twelve parts, of which one is allowed to each half 
channel, two to each whole channel, and two to each of the spaces between the channels; the 
projection is one and a half of these parts. The height of the cornice is divided into three 
parts, and the lower of these is subdivided into three smaller parts, one of which gives the height 
of the cap of the triglyph ; another that of the hollow and fillet ; and the remaining one that of 
the ovolo. The other two parts arc divided into seven. Of these two are given to the mutulo 
and its cap ; two to the corona ; one to the cyma-reversa and its fillet ; and two to the cyma- 
recta and its fillet. The smaller divisions are easily discovered on the plate. The projections 
are divided into four parts proportional to the three which constitute the height ; and the first 
of these is again subdivided into three, of which one is given to the cap of the triglyph ; another 
to the cavetto; and the other to the ovolo. The other part is also subdivided into seven, which 
regulate those of the cyma and corona, as may be seen on the plate. 

The altitude of the capital is divided into three parts; one of these gives the height of the 
frieze ; another the fillets and ovolo ; and the third the abacus, cyma-reversa, and fillets. The 
minor subdivisions are figured on the plate. The projection of the capital equals the height of 
the frieze and fillet, ami its subdivisions, which are four, designate the projections of the several 
members, as will be seen by inspection. 





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THE FIVE OR-DERS OF ARCHITECTURE. 91 



THE PRINCIPxVL PAETS OF THE IONIC ORDEE. 

Divide the whole given height for this order into ten parts, of which apportion 
two for that of the pedestal; and then make the remaining eight parts into six, of 
which five constitute the length of the column, (inclusive of the capital and base,) 
and the one which remains is the height of the entalolature. The length of the 
column being divided into nine parts, one of these will form the diameter of the 
column, by which the proportions of several of the smaller members are regulated. 

The height of the entablature is divided into six parts, of which two are given 
to the architrave, one and a half to the frieze, and two and a half to the cornice. 
The projection of the architrave is one-fourth of its height; and that of the cornice 
is equal to its height. 

The height of the pedestal is divided into seven parts, of which two are given 
to the base and plinth, four to the dado, and one to the cap. 

The diameter of the column is diminished from a jDoint taken at the commence- 
ment of the second third of the shaft, in the same manner as that of the preceding 
order; and the base of the column has a similar projection, which also gives a like 
breadth to the dado of the pedestal. 

The base of the pedestal forms one-third of the two parts allowed as the pro- 
portion of the height for the base and plinth ; and its projection is equal to its height. 
The projection of the cap is equal to three-fourths of its height. 



PLATE XL. 

THE IONIC PEDESTAL, WITH PART OP THE SHAFT OF THE COLPilN 

AND ITS BASE. 

The hciglit of tlic base of the column in tliis order is equal to tlie lialf of its diameter ; and 
the projeution is equal to ono-fiftli of the whole. This also gives the breadth of the pedestal. 

The heights of the plinth, base, and cap of the pedestal have been fully described in the 
preceding page; but in order to apportion the heights of the several members, that of the base 
is divided into four parts, of which one-half part is given to the fillet; two to the cyma; another 
half to the fillet ; and one to the hollow. The projection is ecpial to the height, and being simi- 
larly divided into parts, the proportion of each member may be readily seen by reference to the 
plate. 

The cap is also divided into four parts, of which the hollow and its fillet, the ovolo, the corona, 
and the ogee and its fillet, each receive one respectively. The whole projection is equal to three- 
fourths of the height; and each third being subdivided into three parts, they arc set oft', as may 
be seen on the plate. 

The height of the base of the column is divided into three parts, of which one is reserved 
for the plinth, and the other two are apportioned as in the Doric order. The bead above the 
upper torus, which is part of the column, is double the height of the fillet. The fillets are all 
of similar dimensions. The projection of the base is identical with that of the preceding order. 

When the column of this order is fluted, the flutes amount to twenty-four in number. These 
are sunk to the depth of a semicircle, of which the fillet between each equals a third part, as is 
more plainly shown on the plan given of one-ipiarter of the column. 



THE FIVE ORDERS OF ARCHITECTURE. 93 



GENERAL REMARKS ON THE IONIC ORDER. 

The Ionic, being the second of the Grecian orders, holds a middle station between 
the other two, and stands in equipoise between the grave solidity of the Doric and 
the elegant delicacy of the Corinthian. Among the antiques, however, we find it in 
different dresses : sometimes plentifully adorned, and inclining most toward the Corin- 
thian; sometimes more simple, and bordering on Doric plainness, — all according to 
the fancy of the architect, or nature of the structure where employed. It is, through- 
out, of a more slender construction than either of the preceding orders; its appear- 
ance, though simple, is graceful and majestic; its ornaments should be few, rather 
neat than luxuriant; and, as there should be nothing exaggerated or affectedly striking 
in any of its parts, it is not inaptly compared, by Sir Henry Wotton, to a sedate 
matron, rather in decent than magnificent attire. 

"Among the ancients," says Chambers, who always refers to the Eoman architects, 
"the form of the Ionic profile appears to have been more positively determined than 
that of any other ; for in all of the antiques, the Temple of Concord excepted, it is 
exactly the same, and conformable to the description given by Vitruvius." 

" As the Doric order," he further remarks, " is particularly affected in churches 
and temples dedicated to male saints, so the Ionic is chiefly used in such as are 
consecrated to females of the matronal state." 

It may be well employed in courts of justice; and may be also introduced in 
libraries, colleges, seminaries, and other structures having relation to arts and letters, 
as well as private houses; and, as Le Clerc says, in all places dedicated to peace and 
tranquillity. 

The ancients employed it in temples sacred to Luna, Bacchus, Diana, and other 
deities, whose dispositions they esteemed to hold a medium between the severe and 
the effeminate. 



PLATE XLI. 



THE IONIC ENTABLATURE. 



The whole height of this entablature is divided, as previously mentioned, into six parts, of 
■fl-hich two are given to the architrave ; one and a half to the frieze ; and two and a half to the 
cornice. To find the proportions of its several members, the height of the architrave is sub- 
divided into sixteen parts, of which three are given to the first face; four to the second; and five 
to the third : the bead also receives one ; the ogee two ; and the fillet one. The extreme pro- 
jection of the arcldtrave is equal to one-fourth of its height, and that of the upper face is equal 
to one-third of the preceding part. The outline of the frieze is formed by describing a triangle 
in the centre division of its height, (as shown,) the extreme angle of which forms the point for the 
centre of the curve or swelling. 

The height of the cornice is divided into eight parts, of which the hollow and fillet (one- 
fourth) receive one ; the ovolo another ; and the modillion and cap (half a part) two. The upper 
four are subdivided into five, of which two are given to the corona ; one to the cyma-reversa and 
fillet, (one-fourth;) one and a half to the cyma-recta; and half a part to the fillet. The whole 
projection is equal to the height, and is divided into nine parts, each of which forms one-twelfth 
of the diameter. The projections of the several members may be seen by referring to the plate, 
on which they are fully figured ami described. 

(94) 





PL.XLl 






' ' 


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- 




THE FIVE ORDERS OF ARCHITECTURE. 95 



THE PRINCIPAL PARTS OF THE CORINTHIAN ORDER. 

Divide the whole height given for this order into six parts, of which two are 
for the height of the pedestal. The remaining eight parts are then divided into 
six, of which five form the length of the column, with its capital and base ; the other 
is the height of the entablature. The length of the column is sul^divided into twenty 
parts; two of these will be the diameter, by which several of the minor parts are 
proportioned. 

The height of the entablature is divided into six parts, of which two are allotted 
to the architrave, one and a half to the frieze, and two and a half to the cornice. 

The architrave projects to one-fourth of its height, and the projection of the 
cornice and its height are equal. 

The whole height of the pedestal has seven divisions, of which two are given to 
form that of the base and pUnth, four for that of the dado, and one for the cap. 

The column is diminished in a manner similar to the preceding orders. And if 
half of the height of the pedestal be taken, it will give the projection of the base of 
the column and the breadth of the dado of the pedestal. 

The base of the pedestal forms a third of the two parts allotted for the base and 
plinth, and its projection equals its height. That of the cap is three-fourths of its 
height. 



PLATE XLII 



THE CORINTHIAN PEDESTAL, WITH TART OF THE SHAFT OF THE COLUMN 
AND ITS RASE. 

The altitude of the base is half tlie diameter of the column, and its projection is equal to 
Lalf the height of the pedestal, which also gives the breadth of the dado. 

To find the proportions of the several members of the pedestal, the height of the base is 
divided into three parts, of which one is given to the torus and fillet, (one-fourth;) another to the 
cjma ; and the third to the ogee and fillet, (of which the latter receives one-fourth.) The whole 
projection of the pedestal is equal to its height, and is divided into five parts, two of which are 
given to that of the ogee ; two to the cjma ; and one to the torus. 

The height of the cap is divided into four parts, of which half a part is given to the hollow, 
and one-fourth to its fillet ; one part to the cyma, and one-fourth to its fillet : one entire part to 
the corona ; and one to the ogee and fillet. The whole projection is equal to three-fourths of 
the height, and is set ofi" in minor subdivisions, as will be seen by reference to the plate. 

The height of the base of the column is divided into three parts, of which one is allotted 
to the plinth. The two upper parts are again subdivided into five, of which the lower torus receives 
one and a half ; the upper torus one ; the scotia one ; and the remaining one and a half are 
distributed among the beads and fillets. The proportions of these minor divisions are fully 
described on the plate. The whole projection is divided into three parts, as will be easily com- 
prehended by referring to this plate, in connection with the arrangement of the preceding bases. 
If the columns of this order be fiuted, the flutes must be similar in form and number to those of 
the Ionic order. 



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THE FIVE ORDERS OF ARCHITECTURE 97 



GENERAL REMARKS ON THE CORINTHIAN ORDER. 

This order is peculiarly adapted to buildings in which gaiety or magnificence 
is required. The ancients employed it in temples dedicated to Venus, to Flora, 
Proserpine, and the nymphs of fountains; because the flowers, foliage, and volutes, 
with which it is adorned, seemed well adapted to the delicacy and elegance of such 
deities. 

Being the most splendid of the Five Orders, it is also extremely appropriate for 
the decoration of palaces, galleries, theatres, banqueting-rooms, and other places devoted 
to festive mirth or convivial recreation. 

" The Corinthian order," says Sir Henry Wotton, " is a column lasciviously or 
extravagantly decked, lilie a wanton courtezan or woman of fashion. Its proportions 
are elegant in the extreme ; every part of the order is divided into a great variety 
of members, and abundantly enriched with a diversity of ornaments." 

" The ancients," says De Cambrai, " aiming at the representation of a feminine 
beauty, omitted nothing either calculated to embellish or capable of perfecting their 
work ;" and he observes, " that in the many examples left of the order, such a pro- 
fusion of difierent ornaments is introduced that they seem to have exhausted imagina- 
tion in the contrivance of decorations for this master-piece of the art. Scamozzi calls 
it the Virginal, and it certainly has all the delicacy in its form, with all the gaiety, 
gaudiness, and affectation in its dress, peculiar to young women." 



PLATE XLIII. 



THE CORINTHIAN ENTABLATURE. 

The whole height of this entablature is divided into six parts, (as previously mentioned,) and 
of these two are given to the architrave; one and a half to the frieze; and two and a half to 
the cornice. 

To find the proportions of the individual members, the two principal parts of the architrave 
are divided into four, which are again subdivided as follows : one-fifth of the lower division is 
given to the bead ; of the second part the ogee receives a third ; and the division of the fourth 
or upper part into three, gives half a part to the bead ; one and a half to the ogee ; and one to 
the upper fillet. The whole projection of the architrave is equal to one-fourth of its height, of 
which the middle face receives one-half. For the lesser projections refer to the plate. 

The height of the cornice is divided into eight parts, of which one is given to that of the 
ogee and fillet, (one-fourth ;) one to the dentils ; and another to the ovolo and fillet. The remain- 
ing five must be again divided into six, which are apportioned as follows : one and one-fourth to 
the modillion ; one-fourth to its fillet ; half a part to the ogee and fillet ; one and a half to the 
corona ; half a part to the ogee ; one-fourth to its fillet ; one and one-fourth to the C3'ma-recta ; 
and half a part to its fillet. The whole projection of the cornice is equal to its height, and 
being divided into a similar number of parts, the projections of the several members will be easily 
apparent on inspection. 

On this plate is also shown the plan of the entablature, on which the construction of the 
modillions, dentils, cofi"ers, etc., is explained. 

(98) 




TTTTTTTTITl 





THE FIVE ORDERS OF ARCHITECTURE. 



THE PJIINCIPAL PARTS OF THE COMPOSITE ORDER. 

The given height proposed for this whole oi'der is divided into ten parts, of which 
two are allowed for that of the pedestal. The remaining eight parts are then divided 
into six, of which one forms the height of the entablature, and five are given to the 
length of the column, with its capital and base. The diameter of the column, at 
its base, is equal to a tenth part of its whole length; thus the pedestal is three, the 
column ten, and the entablature two diameters in height respectively. 

The height of the entablature is divided into six parts, of which two are given 
to the architrave ; one and a half to the frieze ; and two and a half to the cornice. 
The projection of the architrave is two-sevenths of its height, and that of the cornice 
is equal to its height. 

The whole height of the pedestal is divided into seven parts, of which two are 
allotted to the base and plinth; four to the dado; and one to the cap. 

The column is diminished as in the jweceding order; and the diameter at the 
base is divided into five parts, of which one is added to each side for its projection. 
This also gives the breadth of the dado of the pedestal. 

Of the two parts given to the height of the base and plinth of the pedestal, 
the base itself receives one-third, and its projection is equal to its height; the pro- 
jection of the cap equals four-fifths of its height. 



PLATE XLIV. 



THH CO.MroSITE PEDESTAL, WITH I'ART OF THE SHAFT OF THE COLUMN 
AND Fl'S BASE. 

The height of the base of the column is equal to one-half of its diameter ; anil its projec- 
tion on cither side equals one-fifth part of the whole diameter of the shaft. The breadth of the 
whole of the pedestal is limited to the projection of the base. 

To find the proportions of the particular members of the pedestal in height, that of the base 
is divided into four parts, of which one is given to the torus ; one-third of one part to the fillet ; 
one and two-thirds to the cyma ; and the remaining part to the astragal and fillet. The height 
of the cap is divided into five parts, of which one is given to the astragal and fillet, (one-third ;) 
two to the cyma and fillet, (half a part:) one to the corona; and one to the ogee and fillet. 

The whole projection of the base of the pedestal is equal to its height ; its divisions are 
five -. and the minor projections are easily apparent on the plate. That of the cap is equal to 
f(.)ur-fitths of its height, and the projections of the several members are so clearly shown, as to 
render further explanation unnecessary. 

The height of the base of the column is divided into six parts. Of these the plinth receives 
one part and three-fourths ; the lower torus one ; the fillet one-fourth ; the scotia half a part ; 
and one is distributed among the astragals and fillets ; the upper scotia then receives half a part ; 
the fillet one-fourth ; and the upper torus the remaining three-fourths. The upper fillet, which is 
part of the column, is twice the height of that immediately beneath the torus. 

The whole projection is divided into three parts, and its minor divisions are easily under- 
stood by an examination of the plate, and a reference to the preceding instances. 

AVhcn tlie column is fluted, the flutes should amount to twenty-four, as in the Corinthian 



(100) 



THE FIVE ORDERS OF ARCHITECTURE. 101 



GENERAL REMARKS ON THE COMPOSITE ORDER. 



It is manifest, from au examination of the best works, tliat this order is com- 
pounded chiefly of the component parts of the Ionic and Corinthian, without possessing 
the native simplicity pertaining to eitlier of these classical orders. The Composite 
is, nevertheless, an order of considerable merit, which on many occasions will claim 
a decided preference, and cannot fail to be duly appreciated when judiciously introduced. 

The Komans introduced the Composite more frequently in their triumphal arches 
than in any other buildings ; meaning, as Serlio supposes, to express their dominion 
over other nations, the inventors of the orders of which this is composed. It may 
with great propriety be used wherever elegance and magnificence are to be united ; 
but more especially in buildings designed to commemorate great and signal events, or 
to celebrate the combined achievements of conquerors and legislators. 



It may here be remarked, that the ingenuity of man has, hitherto, not been able 
to produce a sixth order, though large premiums have been ofiered, and numerous 
attempts have been made by minds of first-rate talent to accomplish it. Such is the 
fettered state of human imagination, such the scanty store of its ideas, that Doric, 
Ionic, and Corinthian, have ever been uppermost; and all that has yet been produced 
amounts to nothing more than different arrangements and combinations of their parts, 
with some trifling deviations scarcely deserving notice; the whole generally tending 
more to diminish than to increase the beauties of the ancient orders. 



PLATE XLV. 



THE COMPOSITE ENTABLATURE. 

The Tvliole height is divided into six parts, of which (as previously mentioned) two are given 
to the architrave ; one and a half to the frieze ; and two and a half to the cornice. 

To find the proportions of the several members, the architrave is divided into seven parts, of 
which two are given to the first face ; half a part to the ogee ; two and a half to the second 
face; and the remaining or upper two parts are subdivided into five, of which the bead has half a 
part; the ovolo, one and a half; the hollow, two; and the fillet, one. Its whole projection is 
e(iuul to two-sevenths of its height, and the minor divisions are set oft' upon the plate. 

The frieze is formed in a similar manner to that of the Ionic. 

The whole height of the cornice is divided into ten minor parts, of which one-fourth part is 
given to the fillet ; one-fourth to the bead, and one part to the ogee ; another to the first face of 
the modillions, and half a part to the ogee ; one and one-fourth part to the second face ; one-fourth 
to the fillet ; half a part to the ovolo ; two parts to the corona ; one to the cyma-reversa and 
fillet ; one and a half to the cyma-recta ; and half a part to the fillet. 

The whole projection of the cornice is equal to its height, and is divided into a similar 
number of parts, by which the projections of the several members are regulated, as may be seen 
on the plate ; on which is ul.-o shown the plan of the entablature, with the modillions, etc. 

(102) 



PROPORTIONS OF THE ORDERS; 



PRACTICE OF PILASTERS. 



In the opiniou of Scamozzi, columns should not be less than seven of their diame- 
ters in height, nor more than ten ; the former being, according to him, a good proportion 
in the Tuscan, and the latter in the Corinthian order. The practice of the ancients 
in their best works being conformable to this precept, we have generally followed the 
doctrine of Vitruvius, and made the Tuscan seven diameters, the Doric eight, the Ionic 
nine, as Palladio and Vignola have done, and the Corinthian and Composite ten; which 
last is a mean between the proportions observed in the Pantheon at Rome and in 
the three columns in the Campo Vaccino, both of which are esteemed excellent 
examples of the Corinthian order. 

The common practice of the ancients was to make the height of the entablature 
equal to one-quarter of the height of the column; and in all the various descriptions 
of entablature they seldom exceeded or fell short of this measure. 

Nevertheless, Palladio, Scamozzi, Alberti, Barbaro, Cataneo, Delorme, and others 
of the modern architects, have made their entablatures much lower in the Ionic, Com- 
posite, and Corinthian orders, than in the Tuscan or Doric. This, on some occasions, 
may not only be excusable, but highly proper; particularly where the intercolumnia- 
tions are wide, as in a second or third order, in private houses, or inside decorations, 

(103) 



PLATE XLVI. 



THE CAPS AND BASES TO THE PEDESTALS OF THE SEVERAL ORDERS, 
IX DETAIL. 

The purpose of tliis plate is to show tliese portions of the pcilcstals on an enlarged scale, 
still preserving the method of proportioning them previously observed, in order that they may be 
more easily comprehended, and the relation of their members to the several scales of height and 
projection rendered more distinctly perceptible. 

It will be seen that the height of the caps exceeds that of the bases by one-half, except in 
the case of those of the Tuscan order, which are equal. 

(104) 



I 



I 



I 



J -L 


jti 1 


4i 1 


i 


Jt 



TnE TRO PORTIONS OF THE ORDERS. 105 

where lightness should be preferred to dignity; and where expense, Avith every impedi- 
ment to the convenience of the fabric, should be carefully avoided. 

Perrault, in all his orders except the Doric, divides the whole height of the 
entablature into ten equal parts, three of which he gives to the architrave, three to 
the frieze, and four to the cornice ; and in the Doric order he divides the whole height 
of the entablature into eight parts, of which two are given to the architrave, three 
to the frieze, and three to the cornice. 

These measures deviate very little from those observed in many of the antiques 
now extant at Rome, where they have stood the test of many ages; and their sim- 
l^licity renders them singularly useful in composition, as they are easily remembered 
and applied. 

Of the two modes used by ancient and modern architects to determine the dimen- 
sions of the mouldings, and the lesser parts that compose an order, perhaps the sim- 
plest, readiest, and most accurate is by means of the module, or semi-diameter of the 
column, taken at the bottom of the shaft and divided into thirty minutes. 

Many prefer the method of measuring by equal parts, affirming that beauty 
depends on the slmpHcity and accuracy of the relations existing between the whole 
body and its members, and alleging that dimensions, which have evident affinities, are 
better remembered than those whose relations are too complicated to be immediately 
apprehended. 

Columns, in imitation of trees, from which they derive their origin, are tapered 
in the shafts. In the specimens of antiquity the dimmution is variously performed; 
sometimes beginning from the foot of the shaft, at others from one-quarter, or one-third 
of its height; the lower part being left perfectly cylindrical. The former of these 
methods was most in use among the ancients, and, being the most natural, seems to 
claim the preference, though the latter has been almost universally practised by modern 
architects, from a supposition, perhaps, of its being more graceful, as it is more 
marked and strikingly perceptible. 

" The first architects," says Monsieur Auzott, " probably made their columns in 
straight lines, in imitation of trees, so that their shaft was the frustrum of the cone; 
but finding this form abrupt and disagreeable, they made use of some curve, which, 
springing from the extremities of the superior and inferior diameters of the column, 
swelled beyond the sides of the cone, and thus gave the most pleasing feature to the 
outline. Vitruvius, in the second chapter of his third book, mentions this practice; 



PLATE XLVII. 



THE BASES OF THE COLVMNS BELOXGIXG TO THE SEVERAL ORDERS, 
SHOWN IX DETAIL. 

All tlic bases arc cr^ual in height to one-half of the iliametcr of their columns; and their 
projection equals one-fifth of the whole diameter. The mouldings of these are easily formed, 
being mostly semicircles, except the scotias, which are struck from two centres. Take as an 
instance the scotia in the Boric order, the height for which being given, divide it into three, and 
on the line which separates the upper of these parts from the two lower, and perpendicular to the 
fillet, inscribe the centre for the first quarter circle ; the same distance repeated on the line out- 
ward, will give the centre for the other quarter, and at the same time limit the projection of the 
lower fillet. This method is applicable to all the other orders. 

(106) 





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I ii 



K 



THE PROPORTIONS OF THE ORDERS. 107 

but in so obscure and cursory a manner, that his meaning has not been clearly under- 
stood; and several of the modern architects, intending to conform themselves to his 
doctrine, have made the diameters of their columns greater in the middle than at the 
bottom of the shaft. Leoni Baptista Alberti, ^Yith several of the Florentine and 
Roman architects, carried this practice to a very absurd extent, for which they have 
been justly blamed, it being neither natural, reasonable, nor beautiful." 

Sir Henry Wotton, in his Elements of Architecture, says, in his usual quaint style : 
" And here I must take leave to blame a practice groione (I know not how) in certaine 
places too familiar, of making piUars swell in the middle, as if they were sicke of some 
ti/nqKini/, or dropsie, without any autlientique pattern or rule to my knowledge, and 
unseemly to the very judgment and sight." 

And Monsieur Auzott further observes : " That a column, supposing its shaft to 
be the frustum of a cone, may have an additional thickness in the middle without 
being swelled in that part beyond the bulk of its inferior parts;" and supposes the addi- 
tion mentioned by Vitruvius to signify not anything more than the increase toward 
the middle of the column, occasioned by changing the straight line, which at first was 
in use, into a curve, and tlius, by dexterous means, to " snatch a grace beyond the 
reach of art." 

This supposition is extremely just, and founded upon what is observable in the 
works of antiquity, Avhere there is not any single instance of a column thicker in 
the middle than at the bottom, though all or most of them have tlie swelling hinted 
at by Vitruvius, all of them being terminated by curves — some few granite columns 
excepted, which are bounded by straight lines; a proof, perhaps, of their antiquity, 
or of their having been wrought in the quarries of Egypt by unskillful workmen. 

In the remains of antiquity the quantity of diminution at the upper diameter 
of columns is various, but seldom less than one-eighth of the inferior diameter of the 
column, nor more than one-sixth of it. The last of these is, by Vitruvius, esteemed 
the most perfect; and Vignola has employed it in four of his orders, as wo have in 
all of them, there being no reason for diminishing the Tuscan column more, in pro- 
portion to its diameter, than any of the others. 

Our intention being to give an exact idea of tlie orders of the ancients, tliey are 
represented elsewhere in this work under such figures and proportions as appear to 
have been most in use in the esteemed woi'ks of the Romans and Grecians, who, in 
the opinions of the most eminent writers, carried Architecture to its highest degree 



PLATE XLVIII. 



TIIK ARCHITRAVES BELOXGIXG TO EACH OF THE ORDERS, SHOWN IN DETAIL. 

On this plate the heights of tlie architraves of the Tuscan and Doric orders are each divided 
into six parts, and then with some minor subdivisions In those of the Doric, the mouldings are set 
ofl', as is apparent on thi' jdate. 

The next two — the Ionic and Corinthian orders — have each of theirs divided into four parts, 
which are again subdivideil, — those of the former into sixteen, and those of the latter into twelve ; 
and liy these minor parts, the proportions of the several members are regulated. 

The architrave of the composite order is divided into seven parts, the upper two of tliese 
being further subdivided into five; and by these several divisions the heights of the several mem- 
bers are regulated. 

All the projections are set off from the lower or first face, and in the first two orders, each 
of these is equal to one-sixth of the height ; in the succeeding two, to one-fourth ; and in the last, 
to two-sevenths of the height. 

All the iiiiiuit/a' of these are plainly k>hown by the minor divisions and dotted lines on the 
plate. 

(108) 



THE PROPORTIONS OF THE ORDERS. 109 

of perfection. It must not, however, be imagined that the same general proportions 
will, on all occasions, succeed. Those in our first series have been taken chiefly 
from the temples and other public structures of antiquity, and may be employed in 
churches and other important edifices, where majesty or grandeur is required. Where 
the whole composition is large, the parts require an extraordinary degree of laoldness 
to make them distinctly percej)tible from the proper general points of view; but in 
less considerable edifices, and under various circumstances, more suitable and perhaps 
more elegant proportions may often be designed by the ingenuity of man. 



THE PRACTICE OF THE PILASTERS. 

Columns differ from the pilasters in their plans only; the latter being square or 
rectangular, whereas the former are round. 

Pilasters, when accompanied by columns in the Roman style, have their bases, 
capitals, and entablatures the same as the columns, and their component parts are 
all of similar heights and projections; and when complete, they are identified by the 
names of Tuscan, Doric, Ionic, Composite, and Corinfhian pilasters. 

" Of the two opposite compositions," says Chambers, " the column is, without any 
doubt, the most perfect as well as the most beautiful. Nevertheless, it would be 
impossible for composers in Architecture to dispense with pilasters; and upon most, 
if not upon all occasions, they may be employed with fitness and great propriety. In 
numerous instances, and o)i various accounts, they are even preferable to columns." 

Pilasters are stated to l^e of Roman invention ; and doubtless their composition 
is an improvement upon the Greeks, who employed what are called the antm ; the 
servile imitation of which is a most objectionable practice, and is quite inconsistent 
with any regard to primitive types, from which the Grecian Architecture is supposed 
to have origmated. 

The Greeks employed these anta3 in their temples to receive the architraves where 
they entered upon the walls of the building; and in nearly all the examples of the 
antique the front of the anta3 is equal in diameter to tlie upper one of the adjacent 
column; the antse being also of the same width at the top as at the bottom, and 
not diminished as in the Roman examples of pilasters. 

It is supposed that the Romans, disgusted with the meagre aspect of tliese anta.^ 
and the want of accordance in their bases and capitals, substituted pilasters in lieu 



PLATE XLIX. 



IMPOSTS OF ARCHES, WITH THEIR ARCHITRAVES. 

All of these imposts are equal in height to one-eighth part of the opening of their respective 
iirehes. And this height is also equal to the width of the pilasters on either side of each arch. 

The height is then divided into three principal parts, each of -which is again divided into 
three smaller divisions, so that hy reference to the plate no difficulty can he experienced in setting 
oft" the several memhers. The projections are all similarly dealt with, and in such a way as to 
make their different proportions readily apparent. 

It may also bo observed that the astragal at the foot of the impost is equal in height to one 
of the nine minor parts, and the fillet is equal to half a part. The projection of the fillet is 
equal to its height; and that of the astragal exceeds its height by one-fourth. 

The architrave that circumscribes each arch, more properly termed the arclilvoU, is propor- 
tioned in its width by similar divisions to the foregoing, and the several projections are plainly 
shown on the plate. The width of the pilaster is equal to that of the architrave. 

(llOj 



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H»-TTP»gi^^ 



THE PROPORTIONS OF THE ORDERS. H 

of them; which, being proportioned and decorated in a similar manner with the 
column, are, in the eyes of most thinking and unprejudiced persons, more appropriate 
and applicable as tending at once to preserve the unity and harmony of effect in all 
those architectural compositions in which columns and pilasters accompany each other. 

" Several authors," says Chambers, " are of different opinions about pilasters and 
their application, and to the end of time such differences will exist in the minds of 
scientific men upon points of taste." " A French Jesuit," says the same intelligent 
writer, "many years ago puljlished an essay on Architecture, which, from its plausi- 
bility, force, and elegance of diction, went through several editions, and operated very 
powerfully on the superficial part of European connoisseurs." The Abbe Laugier, who, 
it is understood, is the author referred to, inveighs in the strongest terms against 
pilasters, and every other architectonic form, except such as were imitated, by the first 
builders in stone, from the primitive wooden huts; as if in the entire catalogue of 
arts Architecture should be the only one confined to its pristine simplicity, and debarred 
from any deviation or improvement. 

To pilasters the learned father objects because they are, in his opinion, nothing 
better than bad representations of columns. " Their angles," he says, " indicate the 
formal stiffness of art, and are a striking deviation from the simplicity of nature ; their 
l^rojections, sharp and inconvenient, offend and confine the eye ; and their surfaces, 
without roundness, give to the entire order a tame and insipid effect." They are not, 
he thinks, susceptible of diminution, one of the most pleasing properties of columns; 
and, in his opinion, they never can be necessary. 

To assert that pilasters are not susceptible of diminution at once discovers very 
little acquaintance either with books of architecture or with buildings. Innumerable 
are the instances in the remains of antiquity, of their being diminished, particularly 
when associated with columns. Those in the Temple of Mars the Avenger, in the 
Frontispiece of Nero, in the Portico of Septimus Severus, and in the Arch of Constan- 
tine, at Rome, are all diminished. Scamozzi always gave to his pilasters the same dimi- 
nution as his columns ; Palladio has diminished them in all his buildings at Venice, and 
Inigo Jones has treated them in a. similar manner in most of his designs. 

And if we trace pilasters back to their origin, and consider them either as the 
representation of the ends of partition walls, or trunks of trees reduced to the diameter 
of the round trunk but left square for greater strength, the reason for diminishing 
will in either case be made apparent. 



PLATE L. 



CLASSIC D 11 S AND WINDOWS. 

Classic doors and ivindows have their heads either square or circular, accordingly as they are 
used in the Greek or Roman orders. The latter form must not be used, however, -when the 
impost does not exceed the height of a man. There is no certain proportion for their opening, 
but their height generally cfjuals twice their width, and should never exceed two squares and 
one-fourth. 

In this example wc present a method of finding the proportions of these openings by a 
geometrical rule. 

Make the square A B C D, each side being equal to three times the wiilth of the intended 
opening; then di'aw the diagonals from A to D, and B to C, and their intersection at E will give 
a centre for the pitch of the pediment F. The lines from F to C and D being then drawn, will 
cut the diagonals at the proper height, and also give the width of the opening, which will be two 
diameters in height, as is shown by the circles. 

The architrave around the opening is equal to one-sixth of its own width ; the frieze is of 
similar proportion; ami that of the cornice is one-fourth part additional. The length of the 
elbow of the architrave is one-third of the width ; and the width of the pilaster is of the same 
proportion, as will be seen by inspection. 

(112) 



t1 



7 



THE PROPORTIONS OF THE ORDERS. 113 

It is also a strange error to suppose, or to assert, that pilasters are never necessary, 
but that columns will at all times answer the same purpose ; for at the angles of most 
architectural fronts to buildings they are indispensably necessary, both for solidity and 
beauty. For the angular support, having a greater weight to sustain than any of the 
others, should be proportionately stronger; so that its diameter must be increased or 
its plan altered from the circle to the square. The latter is certainly the more rea- 
sonable expedient, especially as it obviates a very striking defect occasioned by employ- 
ing columns at the angles of buildings, namely, that the angle of the entablature is 
left, as it were, suspended in the air without any apparent support. 

Engaged pilasters may be appropriately employed in the interior decoration of 
churches, galleries, halls, and similar structures, in order to economize space ; for as 
they seldom project more than one-fourth of their diameter, the}- occujiy much less 
extent than attached three-quarter columns. They are also introduced with great 
propriety in exterior decorations, very frequently with a view to avoid superfluous 
expense. Blondel says that pilasters may be substituted for columns in the formation 
of porticos; but among the Roman antiques no examples of this sort are to be found. 

When pilasters are introduced as the chief ornaments in a composition, they 
should always project to at least one-quarter of their diameter from the face of the 
wall, as this projection is necessary in order to produce that degree of boldness so 
requisite in buildings of a certain character; by this means, also, the stems of the 
volutes, and the small leaves in flank of the capitals of the Corinthian and Composite 
orders, are cut exactly through their centres. This method is taught by Scamozzi, 
and employed by Inigo Jones in several of his compositions. 

But if the cornices of the windows be continued in the iuterpilasters, as is some- 
times the case; or if there should be cornices to mark the separation between the 
stories, or large imposts of arches, the projection must in all such cases be increased, 
provided that it does not interfere with any prominent part of the decorations. For 
it is extremely ofiensive to an architectural eye to observe several of the upper mould- 
ings of an impost or cornice cut away perpendicularly, in order to make room for the 
pilaster, while the cornice or impost on either side projects considerably beyond it. 

When pilasters are placed closely behind columns, they should not project beyond 
one-eighth of their diameter, or even so much, unless there be imposts or continued 
cornices in the iuterpilasters. Where flutings are required to the shafts of pilasters, 
the same proportions should be used as in the similar treatment of columns. 



PLATE LI. 



CLASSIC W I N P W S. 

windows, rorrard must lie had to tlie altitud 



In proport 
edifice. 

This plate contains si 
licight of any room. 

No. 1 is a circulai- window. 

No. 2 is a perfect square. 

No. 3 ; the height is the diagonal of a Sf[uare. 

No. 4 ; the height is equal to a square and two-thirds. 

No. 5 ; the height is equal to a square and three-fourths. 

No. C is equal in height to two squares. 

All of the proportions are fully described liy the dotted 
several windows arc in general equal to one-sixth of the width. 



of the several stories in 



rns of different proportions, some of which are suitable to the 



lines. The architraves to the 



MOULDINGS AND ORNAMENTS. 



Having in the preceding pages combined, in an essay form, all that we thought 
would be most likely to prove valuable and interesting in regard to the Orders, we 
here purpose to conclude this important department of our work by prefixing to the 
necessary Definitions a few pertinent remarks on the theory of Mouldings and Ornaments. 

Of Regular Mouldings there are but eight, the names of which are the OvoJo, 
the Talon, the C'l/ma, the Cavefto, the Torus, the Astragal, the Scotia, and the FiUet. 

The names of these are allusive to their forms, and their forms are adapted to 
the uses which they are intended to serve. The Orolo and Talon being strong at 
their extremities, are fit for supports. The C>/ma and Cavetto, though improper for 
that purpose, as they are weak at the extremities and terminate in a point, are well 
adapted for coverings to shelter other members; the tendency of their outlines being 
very opposite to the direction of falling water, which, therefore, cannot glide along 
their surface, but must necessarily drop from it. The Torus and Astragal, shaped 
like ropes, are intended to bind and strengthen the parts on which they are employed; 
and the use of the Fillet and Scotia is only to separate, contrast, and strengthen the 
effect of other mouldings, to give a graceful turn to the profile, and to prevent that 
confusion which would result from joining several convex members together. 

That the inventors of these forms meant to express something by these different 
figures will scarcely be denied; and that the above mentioned were their destinations 
may be adduced not only from their figures, but from the practice of the ancients in 
their most esteemed works. 

Mr. Gwilt very justly observes, that the Ovolo should be used only above the 
level of the eye of the spectator; that the Cavetto ought not to be seen in bases or 
capitals; that the Gymco-recta ought to be used only in crowning members; the Scotia 
below the eye; and the Fillet when required to separate the curved parts. 

Mouldings are generally divided into Grecian and Roman. They differ mainly 
from the fact that the Romans usually employed segments of circles in their ornaments, 
while the Greeks often introduced parts of an ellipsis, or some other section of a cone, 



PLATE LII. 

The range of mouldiiiL's iiiclmled under Fig. 1, are of the form known as the echinus, or 
Grecian ovolo ; it is fmind in tlie corona and beneath the ahacus of the Doric order, and is 
frequently otherwise applied, particuhirly in bed-mouhlings for cornices, for which its form is very 
suitable. 

The diagram No. 1 in this range shows the method of obtaining the desired curve. Having 
the given projection, C D, and height, E C, divide the height into four parts; one of these, E E, 
forms the upper or receding portion of the moulding called the ijiu'rk. Divide B C into five 
parts : give one of these to the lower fillet, and two will determine the distance of the puint 4 
from G. Set oft" the point A at a distance iV(..m G e^iual to G D, including the width of the fdlet 
below. Then draw B 4, and divide it into four emial parts ; from D draw the radiating lines 
D 1, D 2, etc. ; and from A draw lines cutting B 4 in the points 1, 2, 3, and the reijuired curve 
may then be traced through the points of intersection with D 1, D 2, etc. 

The others of this range are described on the same principle. 

Fig. 2 exhibits three forms of the cyma-recta. In No. 1 divide the height ami projection each 
into two equal parts : on the line A C set oft' F A, G C, each equal to one of these parts : divide 
II F, 11 D, E L, into four equal parts ; from B draw lines to the points in II D and E L ; then 
from A and C draw lines through the points in F II and G L ; the intersections of these are 
points in the required curve through which it may be traced. No. 2 is drawn in the same 
manner ; and No. o, where the projection is much greater, is performed by the subdivisions of the 
horizontal lines, and setting of the vertical points in diagonals II B and F M. 

The manner of drawing the mouldings in Fig. 3 will be found in tlie description of the next 
plate. 

No. 1, Fig. 4, is a Grecian ovolo, formed by the intersection of radiating with horizontal lines. 
No. 2 is an examjile of the same with a fillet above. The tangent A B, and the greatest pro- 
jection of the moulding at C being given, from A draw A D E, perpendicular ; from C draw C D 
parallel to A B, making D E and D A equal. Having divided C B and C D into an equal 
number of parts, draw lines from A to the points in C B ; then draw from E lines through the 
points in C D ; through the intersections of these with the former the re(inired curve may be 
traced. 

The scotia No. 3 is formed on the same principle. 

(UC) 



MOULDINGS AND ORNAMENTS. 117 

varying from the circle. The Eoman Ovolo and Gavetto are never found in Grecian 
Architecture, nor the Greek Echinus in Roman; the others they possess in common. 

An assemblage of essential parts and mouldings is termed a profile. On the 
choice, disposition, and jjroportions of these, depend the beauty or deformity of the 
composition. The most perfect profiles are those which consist of few mouldings, 
varied both in form and size, fitly aj)plied with regard to their uses, and so distributed 
that the straight and curved ones succeed each other alternately. In every profile 
there should be a predominant member to which all of the others ought to appear 
subservient; and where the profile is considerable, the predominant member should 
always be accompanied by one or more principal members, calculated to attract the 
eye and assist the perception of the beholder. Thus, in a cornice, the corona pre- 
dominates ; the modillions and dentils are principals in the composition ; the cyma 
and cavetto cover them; the ovolo and talon support them. 

When ornaments are employed to decorate profiles, some of the mouldings should 
always be left plain in order to form a proper repose ; for when all are enriched, the 
figure of the profile is lost in confusion. In the cornices of entablatures neither the 
corona, the modillion bands, nor the other facias of the architraves should be orna- 
mented. Neither should pliutlis of columns, fillets, or any square members be curved. 
For, generally speaking, they are either principals in compositions, or boundaries to 
other parts ; and, in either instance, their figures should be simple, distinct, and unem- 
barrassed. A distinct outline, and an equal distribution of enrichments, should on 
every occasion be strictly attended to. 

Variety in ornaments should never be carried to excess. Those of the mouldings, 
in particular, should be simple, uniform, and never composed of moi'e than two diflerent 
representations on each moulding; tliese ought to be cut equally deep, formed of the 
same number of parts, and all nearly of the same dimensions, so that the eye may not 
be more strongly attracted by any j^articular part than by the entire composition. 

It is further to be remarked, that ornaments should partake of the character of 
the order they enrich. Those apphed to the Doric and Ionic orders should be of 
the simplest forms, and of larger size than those employed in the Corinthian and Com- 
posite. With regard to the execution of ornaments it is to be remembered, that as 
in sculpture drapery is not esteemed unless its folds are contrived to grace and indicate 
the parts it covers, so in Architecture the most delicate and classic ornaments lose all 
their value, if they load or confuse the forms they are intended to enrich and adorn. 



PLATE LIII. 

Exhibits a variety of mouldings, the curves of whicli are struck from centres. They describe the 
Koman ovolo : the points a and l> being given at each extremity of the curve, it is only neces- 
sary to bear in mind that this moulding is either a quadrant, or some part of a circle greater or 
less than a quadrant ; hence the variation of the centre from which it is struck depends on the 
amount of projection desired to be given in proportion to the height, as shown by the examples 
A, B, C. 

The manner of describing the cavetto or hollow is very simple, and is fully represented by 
the examples D, E, and F. 

To describe the cyma-recta G, the points a and b being given, join a ami h, bisect a b in e ; 
from the points b, e, and a describe arcs cutting each other in c and d; from the centres c and (/, 
and with the same radius, draw the curves i'' e and a e, which gives the required cyma-recta. The 
cyma-revorsa or ogee, II, is drawn in the same manner, except that the position of the centres is 
reversed. 

The torus and cavetto, so frequently employed in the finishing of stairs, are shown by 
the example I. 

J is a semi-hollow. 

K, a form suitable for a bed-mould. 

L, an ogee and bead. 

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DEFINITIONS. 



If a Circular Column has no base, it is called a frustum column; but if it has 
one, the shaft, base, and capital together, form the Column; and the mass supported 
thereby is denominated the Entablature. 

The beam, which is presumed to rest upon the column, and forms the lower part 
of the entablature, is called the ARcniTRAYE, or Ejnsff/lium. 

The space comprehended between the upper side of the architrave, or epistylium, 
and the under side of the presumed beam over the joists, is called the Frieze, or 
Zopho7-ics. 

The profile or edge of the presumed inclined roof, upheld by the joists or cross- 
beams, projectmg beyond the face of the frieze or zophorus, is called the Cornice. 

The thickest or lowest part of the column is called the lower diameter ; and its 
upper and most slender part is called the tipper diameter. 

Half of the lower diameter is called a Modide, which is divided into thirty equal 
parts called minutes; by this scale every part appertaining to the order is regulated, 
both as regards the altitude and projection of the several component parts. 

The depth of the column, from the lowest part of the architrave to the upper 
diameter, is called the Capital. 

The space comprehended between the upper and lower diameters of the column 
is called the Shaft; and the space between the pedestal, or step, is called the Base; 
if there be none, the column must of necessity rest upon the step, as in Grecian and 
Doric examples. 

The smallest spaces between the lower diameters of columns, which stand in the 
same range, are called Intercolumniations. 

When intercolumniations are equal to one aud a half of the lower diameters 
of columns, they are called pijcnostijle, or columns set thickly. 

When the intercolumniations are equal to two of the lower diameters, they are 
called systyle. 

(119) 



12(1 DEFINITIONS. 

Wlien the intercolumniations arc equal to two and one quarter of the lower 
diameters, they are called twitijle. 

When the intercohnnniations are equal to three of the lower diameters, they are 
called deaiMiih:. 

When the intercolumniations are equal to four of the lower diameters of columns, 
they are called oiosysf ijle , or columns set thinly ; in which case tliey may he coupled. 

When porticos consist of four columns. Avith three intercolumniations, they are 
called tctrcistyJe ; with six columns, liexastyle ; with eight columns, ocMdyle ; and in 
like manner, according to the number of the columns, they are identified by Latin 
terms, which may be created ad infinitum. 

Porticos to public buildings, with six, eight, or ten columns, are the most esteemed ; 
yet among the ancient buildings beautiful examples with four columns only are frequent, 
of which the much admired Doric portico at xYthens, and the Ionic specimen on the 
Kiver Ihssus, are striking instances. 



GLOSSARY OF AECHITECTUEAL TERMS. 



To the Glossary we ^^refix, in a tabular form, a detailed comparison of the m'ost 
striking variations in what may be termed the two extreme styles, the Grecian and 
the Pointed, or Gothic. 



GRECIAN. 

The general running lines are horizontal. 
Arches not necessary. 



An entablature absolutely necessary ; consisting al- 
ways of two, and mostly of three distinctive parts, 
having a close relation to, and its character and 
ornaments determined by, the columns. ' 

The columns can support nothing but an entabla- 
ture, and no arch can spring directly from a co- 
lumn. 

A flat column may be called a pilaster. 



The arch must spring from a horizontal line. 

Columns the supporters of the entablature. 

No projections like buttresses, and all projections 

stopped by horizontal lines. 
Arrangement of pediment fixed. 

Openings limited by the proportions of the column. 
Regularity of composition on each side of a centre 

necessary. 
Cannot form good steeples, because they must re- 
unconnected buildings piled on each other. 



GOTHIC. 

The general running lines are vertical. 

Arches a really fundamental principle, and no pure 
Gothic building or ornament can be composed 
without them. 

No such thing as an entablature composed of parts ; 
and what is called a cornice bears no real rela- 
tion to the shafts which may be in the same 
building. 

The shaft can only support an arched moulding, and 
in no case a horizontal line. 

Nothing analogous to a pilaster; every flat orna- 
mented projecting surface is either a series of 
panels or a buttress. 

No horizontal line necessary, and never any but the 
small cap of a shaft. 

Shaft bears nothing and is only ornamental, and the 
round pier still a pier. 

Buttresses are essential parts, and stop horizontal 
lines. 

Pediment only au ornamented end-wall, and may be 
of almost any pitch. 

Openings almost unlimited. 

Regularity of composition seldom found, and variety 
of ornament universal. 

From its vertical lines, may be carried to any prac- 
i ticable height, with almost increasing beauty. 
u (1-1) 



PLATE LIV. 

GEOMETRICAL PROBLEMS. 

Fig. 1. To inscrihc in a Circle a regular Hexagon and an Equilateral Triangle.— Ai>i,]j the 
radius c a six times tn tlie circumference, ami then -svill be inscribed a regular liexagon. Join 
the alternate angles of the hexagon, and there ivill be inscribed an equilateral triangle. 

Fig. 2. To inseriU- in a C'irelc a licgular Pentagon.— Dnny two diameters, a h and b i, per- 
pendicular to each other. Bisect the radius h c at e; take e d, equal to a e ; then from a, as a 
centre, and ^vith the radius a d, describe the arc d /, and the chord a f -will be one side of the 
required pentagon. 

Fig. 3. To inscribe in a Circle a Square and a licgular Octagon. — To inscribe a square, draw 
tiTO diameters at rightangles to each other, and join their extremities. Bisect the arc subtended 
by one of the sides of the square, and the chord, a b o? half the arc, y\-i\\ be the size of the 
octagon required. 

Fig. 4. To make an Octagon out. of a Square. — Draw the diagonals / c and d g; from/ and e, 
as centres, and with a radius equal to one-half of the diagonal, describe arcs cutting the sides of 
the square in a and b ; remove from each corner of the square a triangle equal to a b g. 

Fig. 5. To draw a Segment bg Bods to any Length and JTeight.—Mako two rods, a b an<l a d, 
each being eijual to tlie base h d of the segment, to form the angle b a d ; then, having them 
secured, and placed as in the figure, put a nail at b and one at d. Now, place a pencil-point 
at a, and move the frame either way, sliding against the nails at h and c/, and the point a will 
mark the arc of the required segment. 

Second 3IetIiod. — If the segment required is too large to be conveniently drawn in this way, 
we may cut a triangular piece of board, as shown at Fig. 9, the height, i c, of the triangle being 
half the height of the segment. Now, by putting a nail also at a, we may, with this triangle, 
draw half the arc of the required segment at a time, in a manner similar to the above, placing it 
as shown by the rods at e a and c b. 

Fig. 10. To draw the Segment of a Circle bg means of Intersecting Lines.— Let b d be the 
base of the segment, and «, its height; draw the chord a b, and erect bm perpendicular to it, 
and e b perpendicular to b d ; divide b G and G d each into six equal parts, at the points 1, 2, etc. ; 
divide, also, a m into six ecjual parts at the points 1', 2', etc., and draw the lines 1 1', 2 2', etc.; 
and their point of intersection with the lines a 1, a 2, etc., are points of the curve ; trace the curve 
through them, and you will have the half-segment a b. The other half may be drawn in the 
same way. 



GLOSSARY. 



A. 

Aaron's Rod. — An ornamental figure, representing a rod with a serpent twined about it; called 

by some the Caduceus of Mercury. 
Abacus. — The upper member of the capital of a column, serving as a kind of crown-piece in the 

Grecian Doric; a collection of members or mouldings in the other orders. 
Acanthus. — A plant, the leaves of which are represented in the Corinthian order, etc. Acanthine 

means ornamented with leaves of the Acanthus. 
Acropolis ; from the Greek. — The highest part of a city ; the citadel or fortress. 
ACROTERIUJI ; (plural Acrotria.) — The extremity or vertex of anything ; a pedestal or base placed 

on the angle or on the apex of a pediment, which may be for the support of a vase or statue. 
iEais. — In decoration, a shield or breast-plate, particularly that of Minerva. 
.^toma. — A pediment, or the tympanum of a pediment. 

Aisle, or Aile. — A walk in a church on the side of the nave; the wings of the choir. 
Alcove. — A recess, or part of a chamber, separated by an estrade or partition with columns. 
Ar^ostyle. — The greatest interval or distance that can be made between columns. 
Alto-relievo, or high relief. — That kind of sculpture which projects so much from the surface to 

which it is attached as to appear nearly insulated. 
Amphora; (plm-al Amphone.) — In decoration, a vase or jar with two handles. 
Ancon. — In decoration, a curved drinking-cup or horn. 
Ancones. — Ornaments depending from the corona of Ionic doorways, etc. 
Angular Capital. — The modern Ionic, or Scamozzian capital, which is found alike on all the 

four faces. 
Annulet, or Fillet. — A small square member in the Doric capital, under the quarter round. 
Ant^. — A species of pilasters common in the Grecian temples. 
Arc-boutants, or Boutants. — Arch-formed props in Gothic churches, etc., for sustaining the vaults 

of the nave. They are at times called flying buttresses, and arch-butments. 
Arch. — Arches are either circular, elliptical, or straight; the latter term being technical. 
Architectonic. — Anything calculated to assist the architect. 
Architecture. — The art or science of designing and superintending edifices. 

(1123) 



PLATE LV. 



!•: L L I P S E 



An Ellipse is a curve, surh tliat, ii' from any point two lines 1^' drawn to two fixed points, 
their sum will be always eijual to a given lino. The fixed points, as O' on Fig. 1, are 
called foci. 

A diameter is any line passing throiigli the centre, and terminating in the curve. The 
diameter which passes tln-ough the foci is called the transver>e, and the one perpendicular to it 
the conjugate axis. Thus, D E, Fig. 1, is the transverse, and A B the conjugate axis. 

Fig. 1. To tlserihe an Ellipse u'ith the Tmmmd, the Centre and Axes heing given. — Place the 
trammel at the centre, as seen in the figure, and so arrange the rod efg upon the arms, and the 
pencil y upon the roil, that e g will be equal to the transverse, and f g equal to the conjugate axis. 
Move the pencil around and it will describe an ellipse. 

Fig. 2. To deseribe an Ellipse by intersecting Lines, the Axes being given. — Describe a rect- 
angle upon the axes, and divide the conjugate axis into equal parts, at the points 1, 2, 3, etc. ; 
divide the transverse into the same number at the points 1', 2', 3', etc. ; then draw the lines A 1, 
A 2, etc., B 1', B 2', etc., and their intersections will be points of the curve. Trace the curve 
through these points. 

Fig. 3. To describe a rampant Ellipse. — This problem is performed like the preceding, except 
that the parallelogram a J E D is used instead of the rectangle a b d c, in Fig. 2. 

Fig. 4. The transverse and conjugate A.vis of an Ellipse being gircn, to draw its Represen- 
tation. — Draw ?/ E parallel and equal to AC; bisect it at/', and draw A / and /- B intersecting 
at /;•; Itisect A /;■ by a perpendicular, meeting A B produced in c, and draw b c, meeting EC in c ; 
then from c, as a centre, describe the arc E k, and from c, as a centre, describe the arc A k, and 
you will have one-fourth of the curve. Draw the other parts in the same way. 

Fig. 5. An Ellipse being given, to deseribe within it another, having the same Eccentricity. — 
Describe the rectangle a b d c on the transverse and conjugate axis, and draw the diagonals a d 
and /' <■ : let A' B' be the conjugate axis of the required ellipse, and through A' B' draw «' //' and 
(■'./' parallel to DE; join a' r' , b'd', and D' E' will be the transverse axis of the required ellipse. 

Fni. i;. An Ellipxe being gircn, to find tJic Centre, A.res, and Foci.—Dra.w any two lines, 
ac and d c, jiarallel, and draw i/c through their middle points; bisect ik at C, and C will be the 
centre. 

From C describe two arcs, intersecting the curve at ?» and 7i ; draw n> n, and D C E, perpen- 
dicular to it, will bo the transverse, and A C B, perpendicular, will be the conjugate axis. 

From B, with a radius eijual to C E, describe two arcs, intersecting the transverse, and the 
points of intersection and 0' will be the foci. 



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GLOSSARY. 125 

Architrave. — A beam; that part of an entablature wbicli lies immediately upon the capital or 
head of the columns. 

Astragal. — A small moulding -whose profile is semicircular, and which bears also the name of talon 
or tendino. The astragal is often cut into beads and berries, and used in ornamental entabla- 
tures to separate the faces of the architrave. 

Attic. — A low story erected over an order of architecture. 

Attic Order. — An order of low pilasters generally placed over some other order of columns. 



B. 

Balcony. — A projection from the surface of a wall, supported by consoles or pillars, and surrounded 

by a balustrade. 
Baluster. — A small pillar or pilaster, serving to support a rail. 
Balustrade. — A connected range of a number of balusters on balconies, etc. 
Band. — A term used to express what is generally called a face or facia ; that from which the 

Corinthian or other modillions, or the dentils, project, is called the modillion band, or the 

dentil band, as the case may be. 
Base. — The lower part of a column, moulded or plain, on which the shaft is placed. 
Basilica. — A town or court hall ; a cathedral ; a palace. 
Bas-relief. — The representation of figures projecting from a background without being detached 

from it. 
Batter. — "When a wall is built in a direction that is not perpendicular. 
Battlements. — Indentations on the top of a parapet or wall. 
Bay; (in Gothic architecture.) — ^An opening between piers, beams, or mullions. 
Bay-window. — A window projecting from the front in two or more planes. 
Belfry. — Anciently the Campanile ; the part of a steeple in which the bells are hung. 
Belyedere. — A turret, look-out, or observatory ; generally very ornamental. 
Bed-moulding. — The moulding between the corona and frieze. 
Boss ; (in Gothic architecture.) — A sculptured protuberance at the interjunction of the ribs in a 

vaulted roof. 
Boulder-WALLS. — Those constructed of flints or pebbles, laid in strong mortar. 
Bossage; (a French term.) — Any projection left rough on the fiice of a stone for the purpose of 

sculpture. 
Broach; (in Gothic architecture.) — A spire or polygonal pyramid. 

i; (in Gothic architecture.) — A projection on the exterior of a wall to strengthen the 

piers and resist the pressure of the arches within. 



PLATE LVI. 

TEE TAKABOLA AND HYPERBOLA. 

A Pakabola is a curve, any point of wliicli is equally distant from a fixed point and a given 
line. Let A B, Fig. 1, be the given line, and F the fixed point ; then for any point of tlie curve, 
as G, the distances G F and G C arc equal. The given line, A B, is called the directrix. The 
fixed point, F, is called the focus. The line H D, drawn through the focus, and perpendicular to 
A B, is called the axis. The line m n, drawn through the focus, perpendicular to the axis, is 
called the parameter. 

A IIvPERiiOLA is a curve in which the difference of two lines, drawn from any of its points 
to two fixed points, is constantly equal to a given line. 

Fra. 1. To describe a Farahohi.— Take a straight edge, A B, and T-scjuare, G ; fasten at G 
one end of a string, equal to G C, and the other end at F ; place a pencil against the string, 
keeping it always stretched, ami move the square along the straight edge. The pencil will 
describe a parabola. 

Fig. 2. To describe a Parabola b// iiitersectiii!/ Lines.— Take the rectangle A H c </, and divide 
the sides ac and ell into the same number of equal parts at the points 1, 2, 3, 1', 2', 3', etc.; 
draw perpendiculars to f 11 at the points 1', 2', 3', etc.; and, also, the lines Al, A 2, etc., inter- 
secting them ; trace the curve through the points of intersection. 

Fig. 3. To do the same hj another method.— 1a\c the triangle C c d, and divide the sides 
C c and C d into the same number of equal parts at the points 1, 2, 3, etc. ; draw the lines 
1 1, 2 2, 3 3, etc., and trace the curve so that these lines shall be tangent to it, as represented in 
the figure. 

Fig. 5. To describe a B>/perboIa hj means of intersecting i/;(t's.— Divide the sides ac and cB 
of the rectangle A B c a into the same number of equal parts at the points 1, 2, 3, 1', 2', 3', etc. ; 
produce B A to C, and trace the curve through the intersection of the lines CI, A 1, C 2, A 2, etc. 

TRACERY. 

IIavin;i given any Gothic Arch, to draw another, either lliglit or Bampant, so that the tu'O shall 
intersect a Mitre truly together. — Let Fig. 4 be the given arch. Draw the chord a o, and divide 
it into any number of equal parts, as four ; then, from the point e, draw lines through 1, 2, 3, inter- 
secting the arch at h g f. Erect ad perpendicular to a e, and from o, through fgh, draw lines 
intersecting the perpendicular in d e b. Now, let the arch. Fig. 7, which we wish to draw in con- 
nection with 4, have the same height, e o, and a greater base, a e ; draw the line a o, and divide it 
also into four equal parts ; make the divisions on a d equal to those on a d, Fig. 4, and draw lines 
from to the points b c d. Having drawn lines from e, through 1, 2, 3, trace the curve o g h a 
through the points of intersection. This will give the desircil arcli. By similar construction, the 
rampant arch on Fig. 6 may be made to correspond with either Figures 4 or 7. 

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GLOSSARY. 127 



C. 



Cabling. — The filling up of the lower part of the fluting of a column with a solid cylindrical piece. 

Capital. — The head or uppermost part of a column or pilaster. 

Caryatides. — Figui-es of women, which serve instead of columns to support the entablatm-e. 

Casement. — A sash hung upon hinges. 

Cavetto. — A hollow moulding, whose profile is a quadrant of a circle. 

Cincture. — A ring, list, or fillet, at the top or bottom of a column. 

Chamfer; (in Gothic architectui-e.) — An arch, or jamb of a door, canted. 

Cinquefoil; (in Gothic architecture.) — An ornamental figure, with five leaves or points. 

Coping; (in Gothic architecture.) — The stone covering the top of a wall or parapet. 

Corbel ; (in Gothic architecture.) — A kind of bracket. The tei-m is generally used for a continued 
series of brackets on the exterior of a building, supporting a projecting battlement, which is 
called a corhcl table. 

Cornice. — The projection consisting of several members which crowns or finishes an entablature, 
or the body or part to which it is annexed. 

Corona. — That flat, square, and massy member of a cornice, more usually called the drip or larmier, 
whose situation is between the cimatium above and the bed-moulding below. 

Corridor. — A gallery or open communication to the difi'erent apartments of a house. 

Crenelle ; (Gothic.) — The opening of an embattled parapet. 

Crocket ; (Gothic.) — An ornament of leaves running up the side of a gable, or ornamented canopy. 

Cupola. — A small room, either circular or polygonal, standing on the top of a dome. It is some- 
times called a lantern. 

Cusp; (Gothic.) — A name for the segments of circles forming the trefoil, quatrefoil, etc. 

Cyma, or Cimatium. — A moulding which is hollow in its upper part and swelling below. 

D. 

Decagon. — A plain figure having ten sides and angles. 

Decoration. — Anything that enriches or gives beauty and ornament to the orders of architecture. 

Demi-Metope. — The half metope which is found at the retiring or projecting angles of a Doric 

frieze. 
Dentils. — Small square blocks or projections used in the bed-mouldings of the cornices in the 

Ionic, Corinthian, Composite, and sometimes Doric orders. 
Details of an Edifice. — Drawings or delineations for the use of builders, otherwise called ivorking 

draivings. 
Diagonal Scale. — A scale subdivided into smaller parts by secondary intersections or oblique lines. 



PLATE LVII. 

To draw Arches of various forms, and to find the Lines of the Joints between the Arch-stones. 

As carpenters arc frc<iuently called upon to prepare centering for arches, and also to cut out 
patterns of the arch-stones, to be used by the stone-cutter, we have thought it expedient to intro- 
duce a plate which will familiarize the student with the best method of dividing and drawing arches. 

Fk!. 1. This is the semicircular, or perfect arch. It is drawn from the centre, C, and the 
joints between the voussoirs are part of the radii. If it is not convenient to draw the radii, make 
each line perpendicular to a tangent, as at t. 

Fig. 2. This is a diminished, segmental, or imperfect arch, being composed of an arc less than 
a semicircle. An easier method of drawing the joint is here exhibited. From the points 1 and 3, 
as centres, draw small intersecting arcs above the arch ; and from the point of intersection draw a 
line through the point 2 bisecting 1, 3 ; this will give the line of the joint correctly. 

FiCr. 3. This is a Moresque, or horseshoe arch. It consists of an arc greater than a semi- 
circle. The joints between the springers below the centre must not be drawn from the centre, as 
C f, but must be made parallel to the imposts, or base line, D E, as a h. 

Fig. 4. The Elliptical Arch. — Various methods for drawing the ellipse are laid down in 
Plate LV., and it is unnecessary to repeat them. To draw the joints, let F F' be the foci of the 
ellipse ; then a line bisecting the angle F 1 F' will give the first joint, and so on. If the curve is 
to be composed of a series of arcs of a circle, the points 0, a, h, c, may be used as centres. 

Fici. 5. The Gothic lancet arch consists of two arcs, the radii of which are longer than the 
span AB. The joints are drawn from the points oo'. 

Fir,. 6. The equilateral arch is described by radii equal to tlie span. 

Fig. 7. The obtuse pointed arch is described by radii shorter than the span. 

Fi(i. 8. The ogee, contrasted or reflected arch, is described from four centres, two withiu and 
two without the arch, a, b, o, o'. The proportions may be varied at pleasure. 

Fk;. 9. The Tudor arch is described from four centres within the arch, 0, 0', o, o'. For an 
arch whose height is half its span, they may be found thus : divide the base line A B into three 
equal parts at and 0'; then will 0' be the centre of the arc Bh; from D, through 0, draw 
a line, and make the distance from C to o' equal to C D ; then is o' the centre with which to 
describe the arc D N. Those arches which have their- height greater or less than half the span, 
are fmnd by other rules. 



GLOSSARY. 129 

Diameter. — The line in a circle passing from the circumference through the centre. 
Diapered; (in Gothic architecture.) — A panel or other flat surface, sculptured with flowers. 
DiASTTLE. — That intercolumniation or space between columns which consists of three diameters. 
Die or Dye. — A naked square cube. Thus the body of a pedestal is called its die. Some call 

the abacus the die of the capital. 
Dimension. — In geometry, means either length, breadth, or thickness. 

Diminution. — A term expressing the gradual decrease of thickness in the upper part of a column. 
Dipteral. — A term used by the ancients to express a temple with a double i-ange of columns 

in each of its flanks. 
Dodecagon. — A regular polygon, with twelve equal sides and angles. 
DoDECASTYLE. — A building having twelve columns in front. 

Dome. — An arched or vaulted roof, springing from a polygonal, circular, or elliptical plane. 
DooKS. — Flat pieces of wood of the shape and size of a brick, inserted in brick walls; sometimes 

called plugs or wooden bricks. 
Door. — The gate or entrance of a house or other building, or of an apartment in a house. 
Dormer Window ; (Gothic.) — A window set upon the slope of a roof or spire. 
Dormitory. — A sleeping room. 
Drawing-Room. — A large and elegant apartment. 

Dressing-room. — An apartment contiguous to the sleeping room, for the convenience of dressing. 
Drip; (in Gothic architecture.) — A moulding much resembling the cimatium of Roman architectui-e, 

and used similarly as a canopy over the arch of a door or window. 



E. 

Echinus. — The same as the ovolo or quarter round; only termed echinus with propriety. 

Edging. — The reducing the edges of ribs or rafters, so that they may range together. 

Elbows of a Window. — The two paneled flanks, one under each shutter. 

Elevation. — A geometrical projection drawn on a plane, perpendicular to the horizon. 

EmbanKxMent. — An artificial mound of earth, stone, or other material. 

Embrasure. — See Crenelle. 

Encarpus. — The festoons on a frieze, consisting of fruits, flowers, and leaves. 

Entablature. — The assemblage of parts supported by the column ; it consists of three — the 

architrave, frieze, and cornice. 
Entail; (in Gothic architecture.) — Delicate carving. 
Entasis. — The slight curvature of the shafts of ancient Grecian columns, particularly the Doric, 

which is scarcely perceptible, and beautifully graceful. 
Entresol. — See 3Iezzanine. 



PLATE LVIII, 

To describe the Interseetlng or Angle-rihs of a Groin standing upon an Octagon Plan, the Side 
and Body-ribs being given both to the same height. 

Fig. 1 is a quadrant of the octagon. E is a given body-rib, wliicli may be either a semi-circle 
or a semi-ellipse, and A is a side-rib given of the same height ; D is a rib across the angles. 
Trace from E, the base of both E and D being divided into a like number of equal parts, and 
divide the base of the given rib A into the same number of parts. From these points draw lines 
across the groin to its centre at in, and from the divisions of the base of the rib D draw lines 
parallel to the side of the groin. Then trace the angle-curves through the quadrilaterals, and the 
result will give the place of the intersecting ribs. Draw the chords a b and b e, then mark the 
moulds B and C from E or D, taking care not to mark them from the crooked line at the base, 
but from the straight chords a h and b c. 



To describe and range the Angle-ribs of a Groin upon a Circular Plan, the Side and 
Body-arches being given. 

Flo. 2. On this quadrant, the ribs are described in the same manner as in the preceding 
example for the octagon groin ; and the ranging is found in a similar manner. E and F are the 
same moulds as are shown at B and D. 

To find the Jack-ribs of a Plaster Groin ivhen the given Arch is the Segment of a Circle. 

Fii>. 3. The ribs in this case may be found by the method explainctl on Plate LYI., Figures 4, 
6, and 7, and as shown at B E and F on the present figure ; also, we may take the height of the 
segment A, and place it from b to c. at C and D ; now take twice the radius a e, at A, and place 
it from c and c, the crowns of C and D, to a and d ; the arches C and D, which arc parts of 
ellipsis, may then be drawn by intersecting lines, as explained on Plate LV., Fig. 2. Either of 
these methods is much easier, in practice, than to trace the ribs through ordinates. 

(130) 



GLOSSARY. 131 

Epistylium. — The same as Architrave. 

EusTYLE. — That foi'iu of intercolumniation which, as its name would import, the ancients con- 
sidered the most elegant; namely, two diameters and a quarter of a column. 



Facade. — The face or front of any considerable building to a street, court, garden, or other place. 

Facia. — A flat member in the entablature or elsewhere ; being, in fact, a band or broad fillet. 

Fane, Vane. — A church; a plate of metal cut into some characteristic form, and turning on a 
pivot to determine the course of the wind. 

Fastigium. — See Pediment. 

Feather-edqed Boards. — Are narrow boards, made thin on one edge. 

Fbstoon. — An ornament of carved work, representing a wreath or garland of flowers or leaves, 
or both, interwoven with each other. 

Fillet. — The small square member which is placed above or below the various square or curved 
members in an order. 

FiNlAL ; (Gothic.) — The ornament consisting usually of four crockets, which is employed to finish 
a pinnacle, gable, or canopy. 

Flank. — The side of an edifice; the least side of a pavilion, by which it is joined to the main 
bmlding. 

Fliers. — Steps in a series which arc parallel to each other. 

Flight. — In stairs, is a series of steps from one landing place to another. 

Floor. — The bottom of rooms. 

Flutinqs. — The vertical channels on the shafts of columns, which are usually rounded at the 
top and bottom. 

Folding-Doors. — Doors made to meet from opposite jambs. 

Foliage. — An ornamental distribution of leaves or flowers on various parts of an edifice. 

Foreshortening. — A term applicable to drawings or designs, in which, from the obliquity of the 
view, the object is represented as receding from the opposite side of the plane of the pro- 
jection. 

Foundation. — That part of a building or wall which is below the surfiice of the ground. 

Foot. — A measure of twelve inches. 

Framing. — The name given to the wood-work of windows enclosing glass, and the outward work 
of doors and windows, or wuidow-shutters, enclosing panels ; and in carpentry, to the timber- 
work supporting floors, roofs, and ceilings ; or to the intersecting pieces of timber forming 
partitions. 

Fret. — A kind of ornamental work, laid on a plain surface. The Greek fret is formed by a 
series of rightangles of fillets, of various forms. 



PLATE LIX. 



Th<: Plan and Inrlination of ,n, .Urrndh,;; Groin, one of tlu- /!o,h/-riU. and t/ir J'/are of the 
Intersection on the J'lan. heimj ;/ie, n, to fnd tlie Form of the SiJe-rih.^, xo that the Inter- 
section of the Arehes shall lie in a I'erpendiruhir Plane. 

Divide half the circumference of the body-rib at B into any number of equal parts ; draw 
lines from these points perpendicular to its base, and continue them to the line of intersection on 
the plan ; from thence, let them be drawn at rightangles toward C, and make the distances 1 h, 1 c, 
1(7, It', etc., at C, equal to the corresponding distances at B; then will the curve abed, etc., be 
the true curve of the side-rib. This curve is a semi-ellipse, and may be found by intersecting 
lines, as at F, according to the rules for describing a rampant ellipse. 

To find the Jlouhls for j>7aeing the Jaeh-rihs. 

At (J draw lines from the points a,h, e, d, etc., perpendicular to the line of ascent //,,'/, toward 
D and E; draw the semi-ellipse A as wide as the body-range, and as high as ah at (J; continue 
the ordinates 16, 1 c. Id, etc., up to A; bend a slip around A, and mark upon it the points 
0, 1, 2, 3, etc.; extend the slip upon the lino A- 6, at D and E, and divide it corres-pondingly ; now- 
through each of these points draw perpendiculars across kG to intersect the lines drawn perpen- 
dicular to the rake ; then curves traced through the points of intersection will give the moulds 
for placing the jack-ribs. The edges of these moulds, bent over the body-vault when boarded 
in, will exactly coincide with the intersection of the side and body-vaults. 

To find the Jacln-rihx of the Side-r;roins. 

Draw tlie number of the jack-ribs upon the arch B, at their proper distances, and take their 
several heights, /) /, /,- /, m n, etc., ami set them upon the arch G from a to h, from b to e, from 
c to d: draw lines through bed, parallel to the rake, and they will shmv on tlie curve tlie proper 
length and form of the jack-ribs. 

To bevel the Body-rihs. 

Since all the body-ribs stand perpendicular to the plan, tlie upper edge must l»e beveled to 
correspond to the rake of the groin. To do this, let the under edge 1111, at B, of tlie body- 
ribs, be beveled according to the rake, so that they may stand perpendicular; then take a mould 
from B, or one of the body-ribs will answer, and place it on each side of the rib to lie cut, making 
the lower beveled edges correspond. The upper edges may now bo marked and beveled. 

(1.32) 



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GLOSSARY. 133 

Frieze. — The middle member of the entablature of an order which separates the architrave and 
the cornice. 

Frontispiece. — The face or fore-front of an edifice; more generally applied as a term to desig- 
nate the decorated entrance. 

Front. — A name given to the principal interior facade of a building. 

Frustum. — A piece cut oft' from a regular figure. 

FuNiXGS. — Are flat pieces of timber, plank, or boards, used by carpenters to bring dislocated work 
to a regular surface. 

Fust. — The shaft of a column. 



Gable; (in Gothic architecture.) — The triangularly-headed wall which covers the end of a roof. 
Gable -Window; (Gothic.) — A window in a gable, generally the largest in the composition. 
Gablet; (Gothic.)— a small gable. See Canopy. 
Gage. — In carpentry, an instrument to strike a line parallel to the straight side of any board or 

piece of stufi". 
Gain. — The beveled shoulder of a binding-joist. 

Garland ; (Gothic.) — An ornamental band, surrounding the top of a tower or spire. 
Glyphs. — The vertical channels sunk in the triglyphs of the Doric frieze. 
Gouge. — A chisel of a semicircular form. 

Groin; (Gothic.) — The diagonal line formed by the intersection of two vaults in a roof. 
Groined Ceiling. — A surface formed of three or more curves, so that every two may form a 

groin, all the groins terminating at one extremity in a common point. 
Groove, or Mortise. — The channel made by a joiner's plane or chisel in the edge of a moulding, 

sill, or rail, to receive the tenon. 
Ground Floor. — The lowest story of a building. 
Ground Plane. — A line forming the ground of a design or picture, which line is a tangent to 

the surface of the face of the globe. 
Ground Plot. — The ground upon which a building is placed. 
Grounds. — A term used by joiners to designate narrow strips of wood put in walls to receive 

the laths and plaster. 
GuTTiE, or Drops. — Those frustra of cones in the Doric entablature which occur in the architrave 

below the tenia, under each triglyph. 
Gutter. — A kind of canal in the roofs of houses to receive and carry off rain-water. 



PLATE LX. 

Given, one of the Body-riU, the Angles stni/r/ht ^ipon the Plcm, and the aseent of a Groin not 
stitndiih/ upon level ground, to find the form of the ascending Arches and the Angle-ribs. 

Let bae at B be the angle of tlie ascent; from the point b make be perpendicular to ab, 
and describe the rampant curve B ; then draw the diagonal a b at E, and make b a perpendicular 
to it, and equal to bo at B; then draw the hypothcnuse ae, and describe the angle-rib E in 
the same manner as that of B. 



To find the length of the JacJc-ribs, so that theg shall fit to the Bale of the Groin. 

Draw lines up from the plan to the arch, as at D, in the same manner as explained hereto- 
fore; then the arch from « to rt is the first jack-rib, from ^^ to ^^ the second, and from o to c 
the third, etc. 

To range the Angle-ribs for these Groins. 

Get the ribs out in two halves ; then the bottom of the ribs must be beveled agreeably to 
the ascent of the groin, and the plan of it must be drawn upon the level, and from thence they 
may be drawn perpendicular from the plan to the rake of the rib ; then take a mould to the 
form of the rib, or the rib itself, and sliile this agreeably to the rake to the distance that is 
marked upon the bottom to be backed off; this will show how much the rib is to bevel all 
around. 

(ir>4) 



GLOSSARY. 135 



H. 



Halving. — The junction of two pieces of timber, by inserting one into tlio otlier ; in some cases 

preferable to mortising. 
Hand-Railing. — The art of forming hand-rails around circular and elliptical well-holes, without 

the use of the cylinder. 
Hanging-Stile. — That to which the hinges are afSxed, particularly of doors and windows. 
Heel of a Rafter. — The end or foot which rests upon the wall-plate. 
Helix. — The cm-ling stalk under the flower in the Corinthian capital. 
Hem. — The spiral projecting part of the Ionic capital. 
Hexastyle. — A building having six columns in front. 
Hood-Mould ; (in Gothic architecture.) — See Drip. 
Hypcethral. — Open at the top ; having no roof. 
Hyperthyron. — The lintel of a door-way. 
Hypotrachelion. — A term given by Vitruvius to the slenderest part of the shaft of a column 

where it joins the capital. It signifies the part under the neck. 



I. 

IcHNOGRAPUY. — The transverse section of a building, on which is represented the circumference 

of the whole edifice ; the different rooms and apartments, with the thickness of the walls ; 

the dimensions and situation of the doors, windows, and chimneys ; the projection of columns ; 

and everything that could possibly be seen in such a section if made in reality. 
Impost. — The layer of stone or wood that crowns a door-post or pier, and which supports the 

base line of an arch or arcade ; it generally projects, and is often formed of an assemblage 

of mouldings. 
Inch. — The twelfth part of a foot. For the purpose of reckoning in decimal fractions it is 

divided into ten parts or integers. 
Inclined Plane. — One of the meclianical powers used for raising ponderous bodies; a declivity 

of a hill, etc. 
Insular Column. — A column standing by itself. 
Insulated. — Detached from another building. 
Intaglio. — Any surface with figm-es in relief on it. 
Intercolumniation. — The distance between two columns. 
Intrados. — The under curved surface or soffit of an arch. 
Inverted Arches. — Such as have tlu'ir intrados lielow the centre or axis. 



PLATE LXI. 



GEO M E T R I C A L S T A I R - L I N E S. 

This, and tlie two succeeiling plates, contain carefully prepared diagrams of stair-lines. Those 
who have p:iid attention to this branch of art, will at once comprehend their value and meaning, 
and will be able to turn them to useful account by means of the accompanying explanations. 

As eaclt of the plates is intimately connected with the other, our reference must necessarily 
be general. 

Plate LXI., ground plan on the line AW; lay off one-half the number of steps that is 
recjuired in the cylinder; in tliis there are five; the half-pace is considered equal to one; the 
manner of doing this is shown on Plate LXIL; from the line of the string draw CP at right- 
angles to C S ; from C to T half a step; the distance from T to P cfiuals two steps; with a 
radius from h k make an intersection, the line Y U ; from the point of intersection, draw lines 
TuP, and where these lines cut the cylinder at cZX, t gives the position of the risers. 

We will now return to Plate LXI. Draw the tangent L N through the centre of the rail ; 
make L R equal to the height of two and a half risers; make the line EST equal to the com- 
mon plane or pitcli-board, cutting the tangent at K; from N draw the intersection N S, extend- 
ing to e; draw f o B through the centre of the rail and at rightangles to the intersection; draw 
Ho and PB parallel to Nf; extend PB both ways; make BA c(iual to P S ; draw A F, 
extended to C, cutting the intersection at e. This gives the required plane, also the semi-major 
axis, and the plumb-bevel, which is shown at A, and also at Fig. 4, Plate LXIII. To obtain 
the bevel for the joint, draw/W, and where it intersects at \, draw \ hV. The line that inter- 
sects at M is at rightangles to VP; and with M for a centre, draw the quadrant; with the 
same centre extended to N, draw the quadrant X W ; then M X W is the bevel for the end of 
the joint, and is shown at Fig. 3, Plate LXIII. For the spring-bevel at the intersection at T, 



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a L o s s A R y. 137 



Jack-Rafters. — The jack-timbers, -which are fastened to the hip-rafters and the wall-phites. 

Jambs. — The side pieces of any opening in a wall which bear the piece that sustains the super- 
incumbent weight. 

JoiXERY. — A term applied in building to designate the finer and more ornamental parts of the 
wood-finishing. 

Jointer. — A tool used for straightening and preparing wood for joints, etc. 



Kerf. — The slit or cut made by a saw in a piece of stone or timber. 
King-Post. — The middle post in a section of rafters. 



L. 

Label ; (in Gothic architecture.) — A name for the drip or hood-moulding of an arch when it is 

returned square. 
Lacunar. — The same as Soffit. 
Lantern. — A turret or tower placed above a building or dome, pierced with windows to admit 

light or to aid in ventilation. 
Larmier. — Called also Corona, which see. 

Lath. — A narrow slip of wood, usually employed in plastering. 
Leaves. — Ornaments representing natural leaves. The ancients used two sorts of leaves, natural 

and imaginary. The natural were those of the laurel, palm, acanthus, and olive. 
Level. — A surface which inclines to neither side. 

Lining. — Covering for the interior, as casing is covering for the exterior surface of a building. 
Lintel. — A piece of timber or stone, placed horizontally over a door, window, or other opening. 
List, or Listel. — The same as fillet or annulet. 
Listing. — The cutting the sapwood out of both edges of a board. 
Loop; (Gothic.) — A small, narrow window. 
Louvre; (Gothic.) — A window in a tower or turret. 
LuFFER Boarding. — The same as blind-slats. 



PLATE LXII. 

GEOMETRICAL ST A IR-LINES. — (Contintep.) 

draw m n at riglitaugles to I' S ; at n as a centre draw the quadrant, from wbieli the line 
extended to draw P is the required bevel. This will not be required, if a tip is taken off each 
end of the mould, and it is slid on the square edge of the plank according to the plumb-bevel 
shown on Fig. 4, Tlate LXIIL; draw the centre of the rail (}Q, Plate LXIIL, Fig. 2, equal 
to P/, Plate LXi. The chord P,/, Plate LXL, transfer to G L, Fig. 2, Plate LXIIL: .Iraw 
the line ALK extended, and at rightangles draw AB, which gives the quadrant of the rail; draw 
LII and c a at rightangles to AG; on the major-axis, with a radius of A E, willi A for a 
centre, make an intersection on the lines A K, A B ; draw the lines L II c a at rightangles to A G, 
or parallel to the major-axis ; at the points of intersection drop perpendiculars to cut these lines. 
This at once gives the exact quantity of the ellipses for the rail. Draw the lines A II and A C ; 
G shows the centre of the rail: witli half the width in the compasses, and L and C for centres, 
mark the width of rail on the lines AK, AB; these lines extended, cutting All and AC, give 
the points that the trammel will pass through. Any quantity of straight wood may be added, and 
is drawn parallel to the line A C. In order to determine the width of the mould on the major- 
axis, and also to set the trammel, a new and beautiful principle is shown. Draw the diagonal 
G E, extended with one-half of the width of the rail, on each side of the major-axis ; cutting the 
diagonal line G E, lot fill perpendiculars, tlien M N is the given width of the mould. In its 
application, the stulT may be cut square through or vertically, at the discretion of the workman. 
Either way produces the same result — a perfectly S(|uare edge on the jihuik. The manner of 
sliding the mould is shown at Fig. -4, Plate LXIIL, on which will also be found half the distance 
tliat the plumb-level makes through the plank with the centre lino marked on the edge of the 
mould ; thus the plank is equally divided from its centre. 

fl?.8) 



fiMQ^'BJ^Jil D? S'iril3:M LL!lFi25 




GLOSSARY. 139 



M. 



Machicolatioxs ; (in Gothic arcluteoture.) — Small openings in an embattled parapet for the dis- 
charge of missiles upon the assailants. Frequently these openings are beneath the parapet ; 
in Tvhich case the whole is brought forward and supported by corbels. 

Mechanical Carpentry. — That branch of carpentry which teaches the disposition of the timbers 
according to their relative strength, and the strains to which they are subjected. 

Mediaeval Architecture. — The architecture of England, France, and Germany, during the middle 
ages, including the Norman and early Goth'c styles. 

Members. — The different parts of a building ; the different parts of an entablature ; the different 
mouldings of a cornice, etc. 

Metope. — The square space between two. 

Mezzanine. — A low story introduced between two principal stories. 

Minute. — The sixtieth part of the diameter of a column. 

Mitre.— An angle of forty-five degrees ; the half of a rightangle. 

MoDlLLlON.— An ornament in the entablature of the richer orders, resembling a bracket. 

Module. — The semi-diameter of a column. As a semi-diameter it consists of only thirty minutes. 

Mouldings. — Those parts of an order which are shaped into curved or square forms. 

MuTULE. — A projecting ornament of the Doric order which occupies the place of the modillion, in 
imitation of the ends of rafters. 

Mullion; (in Gothic architecture.) — The framework of a window. 

N. 

Naked. — Applied to the unornamented surface of a wall, column, or other part of a building. 
Naos, or Gella. — That part of a temple within the walls. 
Newel. — The solid around which the steps of stairs are turned. 
Niche. — A square or cylindrical cavity in a wall or other solid. 

0. 

Obelisk. — A tall slender frustum of a pyramid. 

Octastyle. — A building with eight columns in front. 

Ogee. — The same as Cyma. 

Order. — An assemblage of parts, consisting of a base, shaft, capital, and entablature. Of the 

orders there are five — the Tuscan, Doric, Ionic, Corinthian, and Composite. 
Ordonnance. — The arrangement of a design, and the disposition of its several parts. 
OvOLO. — A moulding sometimes called a quarter round, from its profile being the quadrant of a 

circle. When sculptured it is called an Uchinus. 



PLATE LXIII. 

GEOMETRICAL ST A I R-LIXES. — (Continued.) 

Plate LXII. shows tlie half-twist. Tlic drawings are so nearly alike, that a hrief description 
will here be suflicient. The only difference is explained as follows : In this plate, the height of 
lotli wreaths is taken together on the line XZ; the height, whicli is equal to two and a half 
risers at the intersection of the tangents at Y, makes YK equal to the whole diameter; cxteml 
Y both ways to FC; draw FK where V i is intersectcil ; at 1' draw P£ parallel to j i D c, 
extended to B. To the tangent YK draw DE, at rightangles to YX; from D through the 
centre of the rail at C, draw the intersection ; the remainder of the drawing is the same as on 
Plate LXL: make oh eijual to PI; the distance AB is the serni-diameter of the raking mould, 
Fig. 1, Plate LXIII.; the distance F P is the semi-diameter of the mould for the level part; the 
right line E II is the joint ; all tlie centre-joints are at rightangles with the face of the plank ; 
the bevel, as ai)plied to the level, is shown at A B C D, Fig. 1, Plate LXIII., and its application 
is the same as shown on Fig. 4. The position of the rail-landing is shown on Plate LXIL; the 
line lilt is the last riser; gh extended, is the common plane or ])itch-board ; fc, the half of tlie 
riser. This makes the level balusters the same height as the long lialusters on the steps. 

In drawing the moulds, the centre of the rail is first laid down, and from this, as a basis, the 
moulds are constructed. The wreaths, when sawed out, at once give the outline of the re(iuired 
curve ; and as we have adopted a centre line for its formation, the centre of each end of the 
wreath-piece is taken as a point to square from, which is all that any workman requires. Falling 
moulds we disapprove of, from the fact that their application to cylindrical surfaces, in nine cases 
out of ten, produces a deformed and crippled curve. 

(11") 





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GLOSS A K Y. 141 



Panel. — A thin board, having its edges inserted in the grooves of a surrounding frame. 

Parapet. — A breastwork; the defence around a terrace or roof. 

Parastat^. — Pilasters standing insulated. 

Pedestal. — The substructure under a column or wall; the pedestal of a column consists of three 

parts — the base, the die, and the cap or cornice. 
Pediment. — The low triangular crowning ornament of a facjade ; or over a door, window, or niche. 
Pend ; (Gothic.) — A vaulted roof without groining. 

Pendant; (Gothic.) — A hanging ornament in highly enriched vaulted roofs. 
Pinnacle; (Gothic.) — A small spire. 
Peripteral. — A term used by the ancients to express a building encompassed by columns, forming 

as it were an aisle around the edifice. 
Peristylium. — In Greek and Roman houses, a court, square, or cloister. 
Perspective. — The science which teaches how to dispose the lines and shades of a picture so as 

to represent on a plane the image of objects exactly as they appear in nature. 
Piazza. — A continued archway, supported by pillars or columns ; a portico. 
Pier. — A solid between the doors or windows of a building, etc. 
Pilaster. — A square pillar engaged in a wall. 
Pile. — A stake or beam of timber driven firmly into the earth. 
Pillar. — A column of irregular form, always disengaged, and deviating from the proportions of 

the orders ; hence the difference between a column and a pillar. 
Plinth. — The square solid under the base of a column, pedestal, or wall. 
PoRcn. — An arched vestibule at the entrance of a church or other building. 
Portico. — A covered walk ; more usually employed to denote the projection before a church or 

temple, supported by columns. 
Principal-Rafters. — The two inclined timbers which support the roof. 
Profile. — The contour of the different parts of an order. 
Projection. — The prominence of the mouldings and members beyond the naked surface of a 

column, wall, etc. 
Proscenium. — The front part of the stage of a theatre. 
Prostyle. — A building or temple with columns in front only. 
Purlins. — Pieces of timber framed horizontally from the principals, to prevent the deflection of 

the intermediate or common-rafters. 
Ptcnostyle. — An intercolumniation equal to one diameter and a half. 
Pyramid. — A solid with a square, polygonal, or triangular base, terminating in a point at the 

apex. 



PLATE LXIV. 

(hi tliis plate is roproscnteil a moulded architrave of the description usvially employed in the 
trimming of doors and windows, drawn to one-half of the full size. It is simple, yet effective 
in the style and character of its fiuisli, and, as a general example, may prove acceptable and 
suggestive. 

A shows the plan of the architrave ; B the position of the door ; C the rebate strip nailed 
upon the face of the jamb. D E describes the mitre at the angle of the head ; F F F the return 
of the wash-board moulding at the back of the architrave, of which, in its continuation, it forms 
a part; and G its face as it butts to the architrave. II denotes the face of the surbase and 
the manner in which its scotia returns up and around the architrave, forming a part of its finish- 
ing ; and T is its section. K is the section of the wash-board ; L shows a portion of the floor 
and the manner in which the surbase is tongued in ; and M denotes the face of the wall. 

(142) 



GLOSSARY. 14c 



a. 



Quatrefoil; (in Gothic architecture.) — An ornament in tracery, consisting of four segments of 

circles, or cusps within a circle. 
Quirk-Mouldings. — The convex part of Grecian mouldings, forming, where they recede at the 

top, a reenticent angle with the surface which covers the moulding. 
Quoins. — The corners. See Coins. 

E. 

Radius. — In geometry, is the semi-diameter of a circle, or a right line drawn from the centre to 

the circumference ; in mechanics, the spoke of a wheel. 
Rails. — In framing, the pieces that lie horizontal to the stiles. 
Raking. — A term applied to mouldings, whose arrises are inclined to the horizon. 
Reticulated-Work. — That in which the courses are arranged in a net-like form. The stones are 

square and placed lozengewise. 
Rib. — An arched piece of timber sustaining the plaster-work of a vault, etc. 
Ridge. — The top of the roof which i-ises to an acute angle. 
Relievo. — The projection of an architectural ornament. 
Rustic. — Applied to courses of stone or brick in which the work is jagged out into an irregular 

surface ; also, work left rough without tooling. 



s. 

Sagging. — The deflection of a body caused by its own weight, when suspended horizontally from 
its bearings at either end. 

Saloon. — A lofty hall, usually vaulted ; an apartment of state, etc. 

Sash. — The wooden frame which secures the glass in windows. 

Scantling. — A term for pieces of timber, usually applied to those used in the framing of parti- 
tions, roof-timbers, etc. 

Scarfing. — The joining and bolting of two pieces of timber together transversely. 

Scotia. — The name of a hollowed moulding, principally used between the tori in the base of 
columns. 

Shaft. — That part of a column which intervenes between the base and capital. 

Shoulder. — The plane transverse to the length of a piece of timber from which the tenon 
projects. 

Shutter. — The framed paneling which shuts up the aperture of a window. 



PLATE LXV. 

This plate contains seven designs fur architraves to doors and windows, of varied form and 
finish, drawn to full size, and accompanied by portions of the corresponding wash-boards. These 
may be applied with peculiar propriety in many instances ; and in others they will prove valuable 
as suggestive examples. In the latter case tlioy may be enlarged or diminished at pleasure, 
taking care, however, to proportion their mouldings accordingly. 

Fig. 1 is sijuaro on the back, which receives the wash-board and its moulding. 

Fig. 2; only the scotia of the surbase is continued around the architrave. 

Fig. 3 with 4, is moulded on the back, and its mouldings mitre with those of the wash- 
board and its surbase. 

Fig. 5 with G, is square on the back, and finishes similarly to Figui-es 1 with 2. 

Fig. 7 with 8, has a similar finish to that shown on Figures 3 with 4, with the single 
exception that the ovolo of the wash-boanl butts to the square of the architrave. 

On Fig. 9 with 10, the wash-board, with its mouldings, butts to the back of the archi- 
trave, lu this example there is no surbase. 

Fig. 11 with 12 ; there is no surbase ; the moulded wash-board continues around the archi- 
trave. 

Fig. 13 with 14, only differs from the preceding example in the form of the mouldings. 

(144) 













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GLOSSARY. 145 

Sill. — The timber or stone at the bottom of a window or door. The ground timbers which 

support the posts of a frame. 
Skirtings. — The narrow boards which form a plinth around the margin of a iioor. 
Soffit. — The ceiling or under part of a member in an order. It means, also, the under side of 

the larmier, or corona, in a cornice ; the under side of that part of the architrave which does 

not rest on the columns. See Lacunar. 
SoMMEK. — The lintel of a door, window, etc. A beam tenoned into a girder to support the ends 

of joists. 
Spandrel; (Gothic.) — The triangular space enclosed by one side of an arch, and two lines at 

right angles to each other — one horizontal and on a level with the apex of the arch, the 

other perpendicular, and a continuation of the line of the jamb. 
Spiral. — A cm-ve line of a ch-cular kind which in its progress recedes from its centre. 
STRETcniNa-CoURSE. — Bricks or stones laid in a wall with their longest dimensions in the hori- 
zontal line. 
SuRBASE. — The mouldings immediately above the base of a room. 
Systyle. — An intercolumniation equal to two diameters. 



T. 

Table. — Any surface or flat member. 

T^NI. — A term usually applied to the lastel above the architrave, in the Doric order. 

Templet. — A mould used by bricklayers and masons for cutting or setting their work ; a short 

piece of timber sometimes laid under a girder. 
Tenon. — A piece of timber fitted to a mortise. 
Tetrastyle. — A building having four columns in front. 
Torus. — A moulding of semicircular form, used in the bases of columns. 
Tracery; (in Gothic architecture.) — A term for the intersection, in various forms, of the mullions 

in the head of a window or screen. 
Transom; (in Gothic.) — A cross mullion in a window. The impost over a door. 
Trefoil; (Gothic.) — An ornament consisting of three cusps within a circle. 
Triglyph. — The frieze ornament in the Doric order, consisting of two whole and two half channels, 

sunk triangularly on the plan. 
Trimmer.— A small beam into which are framed the ends of several joists. The two joists into 

which the ends of the trimmer are framed are called trimming-joists. 
Truss. — A framed support used in roofs, or to support floors, when the weight to be sustained 

is very considerable or the girders of great length. 
Tusk. — A level shoulder made above a tenon, to strengthen it. 
Tympanum. — The space enclosed by the cornice of the sloping sides of a pediment, and the level 

fillet of the corona. 

T 



PLATE LXVI. 

We conclude our labors in the present work by presenting, on this our last plate, twelve 
carefully designed examples of moulded pauelings for doors, drawn to half of the full size. 

It is hoped that these will prove of essential service to the practical mechanic, for whose 
use this work was more particulai-ly designed. It will be seen that they are susceptible of 
easy adaptation to particular forms. Being very distinctly arranged and shown, a brief descrip- 
tion will suffice. 

Fig. 1 shows a sunk panel, with its moulding planted against, and Hush with the stile. 

Fig. 2 is slightly varied, with a moulding on each sinking. 

Fig. 3 has its fillet framed and paneled, with mouldings on each sinking ; these overlap, 
which is preferable to a straight joint, as it prevents the unseemly appearance occasioned by 
shrinkage. 

Fig. 4 is almost similar, difleriug only in the form of its mouldings. 

Fig. 5 has also a framed fillet ; the panel moulding is in this case the largest, and comes 
flush with the stiles, which adapts it more particularly for a sliding-door. 

Fig. 6 differs only in the form of its mouldings. 

Figs. 7 and 8 have sunk-panels, with the largest mouldings upon the fillets, and projecting 
beyond the face of the stile. 

Figs. 9 and 10 have also sunk-panels ; these have small mouldings on their panels and 
fillets ; the latter being flush with the stile, adapts them for sliding-doors. 

Figs. 11 and 12 have their fillets framed into the stiles, which are in two thicknesses, 
screwed together. This construction is necessary when the doors arc of large dimensions, or 
extra strength is reijuired. On these examples the mouldings are bold and eftective. 

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GLOSSARY. 147 



V. 



Vault. — An arched roof, so constructed that the stones or other materials of which it is com- 
posed support and keep each other in their places. 
Vermiculated Rustics. — Stones worked or tooled so as to appear as if eaten by worms. 
Vestibule. — An ante-hall, lobby, or porch. 
Vice; (in Gothic.) — A spiral staircase. 
Volute. — The scroll in the Ionic capital. 

w. 

Wainscot. — The lining of walls; mostly paneled. 

Wall-Plates. — Pieces of timber so placed as to form the supports to the roof of a building. 
We'll. — The space occupied by a flight of stairs ; the space left in the centre, beyond the ends 
of the steps, is called the well-hole. 

z. 

Zigzag. — An ornament so called from its resemblance to the letter Z. 
ZoPHORUS. — See Frieze. 



GEOMETRICAL DEEINITIONS. 



A POINT is that -wliicli Bas neither length, breadth, nor thickness, but position only. 

A line is that which has length, -(vithout breadth or thickness. 

A right or straight line preserves the same direction between any two of its points. 

A curve or curved line changes its direction at every point. 

A sui-face is that which has length and breadth, without any lieight or thickness. 

A plane is a surface, such that, if any two of its points be joined by a straight line, that line 
will lie wholly in the surface. 

When one straight line meets another straight line, without being inclined to it on the one 
side any more than on the other, the angle formed is called a rightangle, and the two lines are 
said to be perpendicular to each other. 

An angle less than a rightangle is an acute angle. 

An angle greater than a rightangle is an obtuse angle. 

A polygon is a portion of a plane terminated on all sides by lines. 

A polygon of three sides is a triangle ; one of four sides, a quadrilateral ; one of five, a pen- 
tagon ; one of six, a hexagon ; one of seven, a heptagon ; one of eight, an octagon ; one of nine, 
a nonagon; one of ten, a decagon. 

A trapezium is a quadrilateral which has no two of its sides parallel ; a trapezoid is a qua(b-i- 
lateral which has two of its sides parallel ; a parallelogram has its opposite sides parallel ; a rhom- 
bus has its opposite sides equal and parallel — its angles not rightangles; a rectangle has its 
opposite sides parallel, and its angles rightangles. 

A square has all its sides equal. 

A regular polygon is one whose sides and angles are equal to each other. 

An irregular polygon is one whose sides and angles are not equal. 

A polygon is said to be inscribed in a ch-cle when the vertices of its angles lie in the cir- 
cumference. 

A circle is a portion of a plane bounded on every side by a curved line, every point of 
which is equidistant from a point within, called the centre; the radius is a right line di'awn from 
the centre to the cii-cumference ; the diameter is a line passing through the centre, and terminated 
on both sides by the circumference; an arc is any pai-t of the circumference. 

A chord is a right line which joins the extremity of an arc ; a segment is the part of a 
circle included between an arc and its chord; a sector is the part of a circle included between an 
arc and two radii drawn to its extremities; a line is tangent to a circle which does not inter- 
sect it. The circumference of a circle is divided into 360 equal parts, called degrees ; it will be 
observed that an angle of 45° is the half of a rightangle ; an angle of (30° is two-thirds of a right- 
angle; and the chord of 60° is equal to the radius of the cu'cle. 

(148) 



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